Glomerulonephritis: How to Diagnose and Prevent It at Various Levels

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Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidney. The glomeruli is constellation of small blood vessels in the kidney that act as a filter to remove excess fluid, electrolytes and nitrogenous wastes from the blood into the urine.

It is divided into:

Acute Glomerulonephritis- The symptoms develop suddenly.

Chronic Glomerulonephritis- The symptoms develop gradually.

In glomerulonephritis, the glomeruli lose their filtering capacity so blood proteins and red cells are excreted in the urine in various quantities depending on the severity of the glomerular damage.

DIAGNOSIS OF GLOMERULONEPHRITIS
Accurate diagnosis is essential in the successful treatment of glomerulonephritis.

Diagnosis is highly dependent on the clarity of symptoms, examination and investigation findings.

SYMPTOMS
· Passage of coca-colored urine due to the presence of red blood cells in the urine. This is called haematuria.

· Passage of foamy urine due to excess amount of proteins in the urine. This is called proteinuria.

· Presence of peri-orbital and ankle swelling.

EXAMINATION FINDINGS
· Peri-orbital and pedal edema.

· Elevated blood pressure.

INVESTIGATIONS
· Urinalysis-This reveals diagnostic findings such as red blood cells, casts, white blood cells and proteins in the urine.

· Blood test- Blood level of electrolytes, urea and creatinine. This is mainly done to assess the amount of kidney damage.

· Radiological imaging tests-This is done usually when the blood tests suggest some level of kidney damage. Eg Renal scan or abdominal CT scan is done.

Kidney biopsy- This entailing using a clinical procedure to extract some pieces of kidney tissues for microscopic examination. This is the only test that confirms glomerulonephritis.

TREATMENT
This is based on the following principals:

· Treat under health health conditions quickly.

· Use of corticosteroids to reduce the degree of inflammation and immunological responses.

· Dialysis- This is used for individuals with acute kidney injury or kidney failure.

· Anti-hypertensives such as ACEI, ARBs- This is used to control hypertension in some selected individuals.

PREVENTION STRATEGIES
There are 3 levels of prevention normally: primary, secondary and tertiary.

PRIMARY PREVENTION
The aim of this is to prevent the onset of glomerulonephritis.

It follows the following

· Throat swab should be done for suspected bacterium cause of sore throat. If streptococcus is suspected, oral penicillin should be preceded as soon as possible.

· Prompt treatment of individuals with bacteria endocarditis.

SECONDARY PREVENTION
This involves early diagnosis and prompt treatment of glomerulonephritis.

It specifically entails the following:

· Routine urinalysis to be done periodically for individuals at risk of streptococci infections and for individuals greater than 40 years.

· Periodic monitoring of blood urea and creatinine levels should be done for individuals with compromised kidney function.

TERTIARY PREVENTION
This involves activities and interventions put in place for individuals with glomerulonephritis from developing complications such as kidney failure and to reduce the disease progression.

· Optimal control of co-morbidities like hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

· Reduce intake of high protein diet.

· Restrict salt intake.

· Cessation of smoking.

· Regular clinic follow up by a Nephrologist.

Finally, glomerulonephritis is a very lethal kidney disease of which the onset and progress can be preceded if an individual adheres to the activities in the various levels of prevention highlighted above.


Source by Christopher Ugo Oseh

Band Management Basics For Musicians

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Someone once said that leading a group of people is like herding cats. In my experience, managing a band is like herding a thousand rabid and delirious cats. One has to worry about finances, promoting the band, showing shows, and managing the relationships between members. And that's all before you consider the extra responsibilities of musicianship when the manager is ALSO a contributing member of the band.

Financial management is something that most indie bands forget about, yet it's probably the single most important skill to have. Everything revolves around money; merchandise, payment from gigs, recording, etc. Having the right person to handle the money, even if it is not the main "band manager", is paramount to the band's long-term success. It would be a huge inconvenience to travel to an away gig and need to make an emergency purchase, only to find out the the band's bank account is overdrawn! Even if you are not great with numbers, but are still handling the money, there are countless software tools out there to help you keep track of purchases and income for the band.

Many bands simply promote shows as they come up, but an effective band manager will have a long-term and short-term plan of action for promotional purposes. This may mean scheduling interviews with radio stations or magazines, organizing giveaways for fans, or coming up with printed material and demo CDS to distribute ahead of shows in new markets to build up a fanbase. With the advent of the internet, Twitter, and Facebook, promotional tasks are significantly easier, but there are a LOT more bands promoting in the method. It's imperative that your promotional material be fresh and unique so that it will stand out from the crowd.

Booking shows can be an easy and rewarding tasks, or something that is done only because you absolutely must. The key to making it easy is effective contact management. Many contact management programs also will let you search geographically, making booking gigs really easy since you can "search nearby". Another thing to Incorporate is a simple booking agreement. Booking agreements protect you from sleazy establishments that may try to not pay or double-book performers (both of which have personally happened to me). It gives you a defined agreement that is enforceable by law if things go awry.

Bands will always have internal drama, whether it's someone's lack of self-practice or that thing that someone said to someone else. It's a manager's job to keep everyone happy enough to not quit, but it's also NOT his job to be a parent. Sometimes, you have to let some things play themselves out. However, if a situation appears to be affecting the well-being of the band as a whole, it's time to step in and take control, doing whatever you need to do to rectify the situation. Just take care and use caution not to implicitely take sides; simply act as a mediator. The reason is that you want to build people's trust in you to solve problems and not be a bad guy (even if you took their side).

A self-managed band can be a great thing if lead by the right band member. However, it's important to remember that your first priority is writing great music. When the management tasks start to interfere with that, it's time to start looking around for a real manager to begin the process of shopping for a major label deal!


Source by Christopher W. Smith

The 3 Types of Music Producers

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The professional title of producer is one of the most commonly misused titles in the music industry. This article will cover the three different types of music producers as well as the roles that they play within the music industry and inside the recording studio.

What A Producer Is not

A producer is not a musician that makes his or her own music. The proper title for this position would be a musician, plain and simple. Producers also tend to work with a team of recording professionals, industry executives and reliable musicians to complete a recording project. Because the skills involved in managing a recording project take time to learn and are very demanding, someone who works on their own to create music is not typically considered a producer. The title of producer is often wrongfully associated with the roles of songwriters and general musicians.

Executive Producer

An executive producer is generally the person that funds the recording project. Executive producers also extremely determine the direction of the recording project and carefully maintain the relationship between the artists or bands involved in the project and the record label that oversees the completion of the project. Executive producers essentially maintain the bridge between the record label and the recording artists as well as make sure that the project makes sense financially from a business perspective and a creative perspective.

Music Producer

A music producer typically spends a major of their time creating or arranging music for the recording project. Music producers usually have a strong background in music theory and occasionally have degrees in music theory or music composition from established universities and colleges. Another job of the music producer is to make sure that the music within the recording project is of the highest possible quality and that the musicians involved in the project are making the best music they possibly can. Sometimes music producers are also given the task of maintaining communication between the artists and the record label executives, which is often a task that is more difficult than a lot of people within the music industry realize.

Engineering Producer

The engineering producer understands the technical aspects of the recording studio more than the other two types of producers. Engineering producers know how to work the recording console, setup the microphones for recording, use the recording software efficiently and effectively, and keep the recording project organized. A lot of engineering producers start out as either mixing engineers or assistant engineers to record label producers. They also tend to understand the technical aspects of recording and what it takes to make the music sound great from an engineer's perspective.


Source by Jon Gregio

Rectification Of Accounting Errors

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Accountants prepare trial balance to check the correctness of accounts. If total of debit balances does not agree with the total of credit balances, it is a clear-cut indication that certain errors have been committed while recording the transactions in the books of original entry or subsidiary books. It is our ut duty to locate these errors and rectify them, only then we should proceed for preparing final accounts. We also know that all types of errors are not disclosed by trial balance as some of the errors do not effect the total of trial balance. So these can not be located with the help of trial balance. An accountant should invest his energy to locate both types of errors and rectify them before preparing trading, profit and loss account and balance sheet. Because if these are prepared before rectification these will not give us the correct result and profit and loss disclosed by them, it will not be the actual profit or loss.

All errors of accounting procedure can be classified as follows:

1. Errors of Principle

When a transaction is recorded against the fundamental principles of accounting, it is an error of principle. For example, if revenue expenditure is treated as capital expenditure or vice versa.

2. Clerical Errors

These errors can again be sub-divided as follows:

(i) Errors of omission

When a transaction is either wholly or partly not recorded in the books, it is an error of omission. It may be with regard to omission to enter a transaction in the books of original entry or with regard to omission to post a transaction from the books of original entry to the account concerned in the ledger.

(ii) Errors of commission

When an entry is incorrectly recorded either wholly or partly-incorrect posting, calculation, casting or balancing. Some of the errors of commission effect the trial balance whereas others do not. Errors effecting the trial balance can be revealed by preparing a trial balance.

(iii) Compensating errors

Sometimes an error is counter-balanced by another error in such a way that it is not disclosed by the trial balance. Such errors are called compensating errors.

From the point of view of rectification of the errors, these can be divided into two groups:

(a) Errors affecting one account only, and

(b) Errors affecting two or more accounts.

Errors affecting one account

Errors which affect can be:

(a) Casting errors;

(b) error of posting;

(c) carry forward;

(d) balancing; and

(e) omission from trial balance.

Such errors should, first of all, be located and rectified. These are rectified either with the help of journal entry or by giving an explanatory note in the account concerned.

Rectification

Stages of correction of accounting errors

All types of errors in accounts can be rectified at two stages:

(i) before the preparation of the final accounts; and

(ii) after the preparation of final accounts.

Errors rectified within the accounting period

The proper method of correction of an error is to pass journal entry in such a way that it corrects the mistake that has been committed and also gives effect to the entry that should have been passed. But while errors are being rectified before the preparation of final accounts, in certain cases the correction can not be done with the help of journal entry because the errors have been such. Normally, the procedure of rectification, if being done, before the preparation of final accounts is as follows:

(a) Correction of errors affecting one side of one account Such errors do not let the trial balance agree as they effect only one side of one account so these can not be corrected with the help of journal entry, if correction is required before the preparation of final accounts. So required amount is put on debit or credit side of the concerned account, as the case maybe. For example:

(i) Sales book under cast by Rs. 500 in the month of January. The error is only in sales account, in order to correct the sales account, we should record on the credit side of sales account 'By under casting of. sales book for the month of January Rs. 500 ".I'Explanation: As sales book was under cast by Rs. 500, it means all accounts other than sales account are correct, only credit balance of sales account is less by Rs. 500. So Rs. 500 have been credited in sales account.

(ii) Discount allowed to Marshall Rs. 50, not posted to discount account. It means that the amount of Rs. 50 which should have been debited in discount account has not been debited, so the debit side of discount account has been reduced by the same amount. We should debrief Rs. 50 in discount account now, which was previously omitted and the discount account will be corrected.

(iil) Goods sold to X wrongly debited in sales account. This error is effecting only sales account as the amount which should have been posted on the credit side has been wrongly placed on debit side of the same account. For rectifying it, we should put double the amount of transaction on the credit side of sales account by writing "By sales to X wrongly debited previously."

(iv) Amount of Rs. 500 paid to Y, not debited to his personal account. This error of effecting the personal account of Y only and its debit side is less by Rs. 500 because of omission to post the amount paid. We will now write on its debt side. "To cash (omitted to be posted) Rs.

Correction of errors affecting two sides of two or more accounts

As these errors affect two or more accounts, rectification of such errors, if being done before the preparation of final accounts can often be done with the help of a journal entry. While correcting these errors the amount is debited in one account / accounts whereas similar amount is credited to some other account / accounts.

Correction of errors in next accounting period

As stated earlier, that it is advisable to locate and rectify the errors before preparing the final accounts for the year. But in certain cases when after considerable search, the accountant fails to locate the errors and he is in a hurry to prepare the final accounts, of the business for filing the return for sales tax or income tax purposes, he transfers the amount of difference of trial balance to a newly opened 'Suspense Account'. In the next accounting period, as and when the errors are located these are corrected with reference to suspense account. When all the errors are discovered and rectified the suspense account will be closed automatically. We should not forget here that only those errors which effect the totals of trial balance can be corrected with the help of suspense account. Those errors which do not effect the trial balance can not be corrected with the help of suspense account. For example, if it is found that debit total of trial balance was less by Rs. 500 for the reason that Wilson's account was not debited with Rs. 500, the following rectifying entry is required to be passed.

Difference in trial balance

Trial balance is affected by only errors which are rectified with the help of the suspense account. Therefore, in order to calculate the difference in suspense account a table will be prepared. If the suspense account is debited in 'the rectification entry the amount will be put on the debit side of the table. On the other hand, if the suspense account is credited, the amount will be put on the credit side of the table. In the end, the balance is calculated and is reversed in the suspense account. If the credit side exceptions, the difference would be put on the debit side of the suspense account. Effect of Errors of Final Accounts

1. Errors effecting profit and loss account

It is important to note the effect that an en-or shall have on net profit of the firm. One point to remember here is that only those accounts which are transferred to trading and profit and loss account at the time of preparation of final accounts effect the net profit. It means that only mistakes in nominal accounts and goods account will effect the net profit. Error in the these accounts will either increase or decrease the net profit.

How the errors or their rectification effect the profit-following rules are helpful in understanding it:

(i) If because of an error a nominal account has been given some debit the profit will decrease or losses will increase, and when it is rectified the profits will increase and the losses will decrease. For example, machinery is overhauled for Rs. 10,000 but the amount debited to machinery repairs account -this error will reduce the profit. In rectifying entry the amount will be transferred to machinery account from machinery repairs account, and it will increase the profits.

(il) If because of an error the amount is omitted from recording on the debit side of a nominal account-it results in increase of profits or decrease in losses. The rectification of this error will have reverse effect, which means the profit will be reduced and losses will be increased. For example, rent paid to landlord but the amount has been debited to personal account of landlord-it will increase the profit as the expense on rent is reduced. When the error is rectified, we will post the necessary amount in rent account which will increase the expenditure on rent and so profits will be reduced.

(iil) Profit will increase or losses will decrease if a nominal account is wrongly credited. With the rectification of this error, the profits will decrease and losses will increase. For example, investments were sold and the amount was credited to sales account. This error will increase profits (or reduce losses) when the same error is rectified the amount will be transferred from sales account to investments account due to which sales will be reduced which will result in decrease in profits (or increase in losses).

(iv) Profit will decrease or losses will increase if an account is omitted from posting in the credit side of a nominal or goods account. When the same will be rectified it will increase the profit or reduce the losses. For example, commission received is omitted to be posted to the credit of commission account. This error will decrease profits (or increase losses) as an income is not credited to profit and loss account. When the error will be rectified, it will have reverse effect on profit and loss as an additional income will be credited to profit and loss account so the profit will increase (or the losses will decrease). If due to any error the profit or losses are affected, it will have its effect on capital account also because profits are credited and losses are debited in the capital account and so the capital will also increase or decrease. As capital is shown on the liabilities side of balance sheet so any error in nominal account will effect balance sheet as well. So we can say that an error in nominal account or goods account effects profit and loss account as well as balance sheet.

2. Errors effecting balance sheet only

If an error is committed in a real or personal account, it will effect assets, liabilities, debtors or creditors of the firm and as a result it will have its impact on balance sheet alone. because these items are shown in balance sheet only and balance sheet is prepared after the profit and loss account has been prepared. So if there is any error in cash account, bank account, asset or liability account it will effect only balance sheet.


Source by Anil Kumar Gupta

How to Make and Produce an Audio Book

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The framework for making and producing an audio book occurs in six stages: 1) creative; 2) technical; 3) legal; 4) production; 5) distribution and marketing; and, 6) Big Celebration.

Stage 1: Creative

There's more to this stage than pursuing the muse willy-nilly. It's important to pay attention to your logical self to stay organized. It's essential in order to communicate effectively with your audio engineer and any other professionals you'll be working with. Not to mention saving time, money, and sanity.

During the creative stage you are planning, establishing the content for the CD, recording, and later in the editing phase, swapping files with your audio engineer. After the initial recording, you'll be editing for clarity, complementeness, and cohesion.

So how do you go about finding an audio engineer? You can find such individuals through online research and personal networking. I found mine through an online friend. He was a joy to cooperate with because he was simpatico with my project. Because of his reputation, I knew that I could trust him.

I spent two days in my sound engineer's home studio in Nashville recording all the poems. After I returned home to St. Louis Louis, he sent MP3 files for my review and detailed response in order to complete his editing. In our project we were collaging 90 poems and hundreds of clips from songs, stories, and banter recorded in my father's parlor. He understood the nature and purpose of my project so completely that with minimal direction, he made excellent initial choices, but these still had to be refined.

During the file-swapping phase, you call upon your highly analytical, critical listening skills. You'll listen for quality of the audio, pause intervals, and finalizing the content. For example, in my project we listened specifically for pause intervals between the poems and the song, a story, or the banter between us that framed it. When you finish your review of the MP3 files, you send notes (like a play director) back to your audio engineer who takes care of the rest.

Tip: Make a map to organize your recording work. Before our group recorded in Pop's parlor, I wrote out the songs I associated with each of the book's five sections so we would not waste time. After the four mini disks were completed, I listened to them and cataloged their contents according to running time. This catalog became a handily coded roadmap that he and I could refer to. It saved lots of time during the session, and time, trouble – even money – as he moved deeeper into the editing process.

Tip: Practice before recording. Be present, alert, and open to your emotional response so that you can bring it into your reading. Think of your voice as instrument. Use inflection, pacing, and pitch to sustain listener engagement.

Stage 2: Technical

During the technical stage the audio engineer masters the disc, and you decide how the discs will span. This means, where will the tracks and the CDs themselves break if you are making more than one disc. In our project there were four discs, so this step was critical. Your engineer sends you the first complete work in CD format-your hard copy. You send back comments, including any technical glitches to clean up.

Stage 3: Legal

From this stage onward, the key word is "business." You've established the content and done what most of us would consider the fun part. Now it's all straight-ahead work.

A new term I learned during this phase was "mechanical licensing." Basically it's permission to use copyrighted musical materials that are being replicated for sale in recorded format. It ensures that artists receive the royalties that they are due for creating their original works. As a creative person yourself, you can appreciate how important it is. This step also curtails your legal exposure so you will not get sued.

So, with that definition under out belts, the first legal step is to secure mechanical licenses for any songs you did not compose yourself.

If you are recording original material you composed yourself, then it makes good sense to get it copyrighted. It also makes good sense to copyright the completed product to protect your ent work.

Royalties are computed on an elaborate proportion of number of uses per CD and number of CDs. The mechanical licensing for our project to make 1,000 copies cost around $ 1,000, roughly $ 1 per audio book package with the four CDs. We also copyrighted seven original songs. I hired a specialist to do this work, and it sure paid off in hassle and money.

As you can see there are myriad details to take care of during this stage. You might want to design a project manager. I did not want to do this myself, so my sound engineer also became my point person to guide us through the business matters. He gave me great advice through.

Stage 4: Production

At this point, you choose a company to physically produce your project. Production includes pressing and replicating the disks, making the insert, and packaging the entire product. You have to choose what services you want from among the various ones the company offers. For example, will you produce the artwork yourself or will they? How many copies do you want? In my case we chose a production company through online comparison shopping and decided to make 1,000 copies. That sounds like a lot, but 1,000 copies was where the price per copy started to make sense. Also, if you do another production run, the law require you to renew and redo all the mechanical licenses. Ack!

Stage 5: Distribution and Marketing

How do you do this will depend on many factors such as the strength of your existing marketing platform and your available resources. You'll price the product at this point. A minimum rule of thumb is to double the basic cost invested.

If you are doing it yourself, make a marketing and distribution plan just as you would for a self-published book. The plan helps you determine your audience and figure out the most effective channels for reaching these people.

For instance you can market the audio book from your website, but to sell it off Amazon. That way Amazon is responsible for fulfillment-taking the orders, packing the product, and sending it out.

Stage 6: Big Celebration

After all the work and months of waiting your product took, make sure you have some kind of party to celebrate the completion.


Source by Janet Grace Riehl

What Is Digital Marketing and How to Use It

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You will have to devote lots of time marketing yourself and earning referrals. Content marketing then will be more prone towards user-generated, instead of professional, content within the next calendar year. The secret to content marketing is that the content has to be interesting to your audience and will supply value to them.

There are a number of reasons to put money into influencer advertising. It is a way to get past the need to use ads to reach your audience. Although email promotion is highly effective, not all startups can harness the real power of email marketing.

Digital marketing is not rocket science. It has no boundaries. Since you may see, digital promotion is a big and complicated topic. Digital Marketing is a huge subject and you can not turn into a hero in 30 hours! It is a type of marketing technique where the marketing activity is carried out with the help of channels and platforms available on the internet. It uses the internet as a main promotional medium, in addition to traditional TV and radio.

It is one of the fastest growing industries so there is much room for growth and development. It is one of the top 5 growing sectors since the year 2009. In simple terms, it is the promotion of products, services or brands via digital marketing channels. It is much more advanced than the traditional style of marketing because, One has to be very careful in selecting the right strategy to generate reach.

Getting your own digital advertising and marketing blog is able to help you set yourself apart from others in the business and stand out when you should speak to an influencer or potential employer. The ideal marketing influencers are individuals who speak and reveal themselves in front of individuals.

Your email marketing strategy will vary a lot based on the essence of your small business. Needless to say, there are a number of different reasons your data-driven advertising and marketing strategy could fail in addition to a deficiency of comprehensive tools. It's simple to separate your digital advertising strategy into various channels like pay per click ads, social networking, search engine optimization and so forth. A digital marketing and advertising strategy does not require demand a detailed analysis, it purely takes a set of objectives and goals which you are seeking to realize. You should develop a content marketing strategy based not just on the info you need to give your clients, but also based on your understanding of what information people are trying to find.

Your digital marketing and advertising strategy may incorporate elements of all 3 channels, all working together to assist you achieve your objective. An intelligent and powerful digital marketing and advertising strategy has many faces. Then you'll have a fully integrated digital marketing and advertising strategy.

Developing a digital marketing and advertising strategy does not need to be hard work. Based on the scale of your organization, your digital marketing strategy might involve a number of objectives, but coming back to this easy way of thinking about strategy will be able to help you stay focused on meeting those objectives. It needs to deliver the right content based on their buying stage. A clearly defined digital marketing and advertising strategy encourages existing customers together with new customers to engage and stay loyal.

You need to construct a marketing system which focuses on a group or groups of individuals. The key issue is to develop your promotion system with the most suitable expectations. Fortunately, marketing software has come a very long way in the past few decades, and there are a lot of tools which may help. Ask yourself these questions before you pick any new marketing and advertising tool. You are going to learn how to use the digital instruments and techniques effectively for a prosperous campaign. In other words, it's because digital instruments and skills have an established capacity to create revenue, and companies wish to harness that power and keep competitive.

Using digital radiography has rapidly increased in recent decades. You could also take advantage of sophisticated email marketing software to run targeted campaigns with an objective of convincing your audience to have a particular action such as signing up for a class, buying your goods, attending an event, or in any case may be. It explains using email marketing, online affiliate marketing, Facebook marketing, and the way to use social networking tools like Twitter, podcasting and blogging.


Source by Rosario Berry

Electronic Music History and Today's Best Modern Proponents!

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Electronic music history pre-dates the rock and roll era by decades. Most of us were not even on this planet when it began its often obscure, under-appreciated and misunderstood development. Today, this 'other worldly' body of sound which began close to a century ago, may no longer appear strange and unique as new generations have accepted much of it as mainstream, but it's had a bumpy road and, in finding mass audience acceptance, a slow one.

Many musicians – the modern proponents of electronic music – developed a passion for analogue synthesizers in the late 1970's and early 1980's with signature songs like Gary Numan's breakthrough, 'Are Friends Electric?'. It was in this era that these devices became smaller, more accessible, more user friendly and more affordable for many of us. In this article I will attempt to trace this history in easily digestible chapters and offer examples of today's best modern proponents.

To my mind, this was the beginning of a new epoch. To create electronic music, it was no longer necessary to have access to a roomful of technology in a studio or live. Hitherto, this was solely the domain of artists the likes of Kraftwerk, whose arsenal of electronic instruments and custom built gadgetry the rest of us could only have dreamed of, even if we could understand the logistics of their functioning. Having said this, at the time I was growing up in the 60's & 70's, I never had a little knowledge of the complexity of work that had set a standard in previous decades to arrive at this point.

The history of electronic music owes much to Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928-2007). Stockhausen was a German Avante Garde composer and a pioneer figurehead in electronic music from the 1950's onwards, influencing a movement that would ever have a powerful impact upon names such as Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream, Brain Eno, Cabaret Voltaire, Depeche Mode, not to mention the experimental work of the Beatles' and others in the 1960's. His face is seen on the cover of "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band", the Beatles' 1967 master Opus. Let's start, however, by traveling a little further back in time.

The Turn of the 20th Century

Time still still for this stargazer when I originally discovered that the first documented, exclusively electronic, concerts were not in the 1970's or 1980's but in the 1920's!

The first purely electronic instrument, the Heremin, which is played without touch, was invented by Russian scientist and cellist, Lev Termen (1896-1993), circa 1919.

In 1924, the Heremin made its concert debut with the Leningrad Philharmonic. Interest generated by the theremine drew references to concerts staged across Europe and Britain. In 1930, the prestigious Carnegie Hall in New York, experienced a performance of classical music using nothing but a series of ten theremins. Watching a number of skilled musicians playing this eerie sounding instrument by wandering their hands around its antennae must have been so exhilarating, surreal and alien for a pre-tech audience!

For those interested, check out the records of Theremin virtuoso Clara Rockmore (1911-1998). Lithuanian born Rockmore (Reisenberg) worked with its inventor in New York to perfect the instrument during its early years and became its most acclaimed, brilliant and recognized performer and representative through her life.

In retrospect Clara, was the first celebrated 'star' of genuine electronic music. You are illegally to find more eerie, yet beautiful performances of classical music on the Heremin. She's definitely a favorite of mine!

Electronic Music in Sci-Fi, Cinema and Television

Unfortunately, and due mainly to difficulty in skill mastering, the Heremin's future as a musical instrument was short lived. Occasionally, it found a niche in 1950's Sci-Fi films. The 1951 cinema classic "The Day the Earth Stood Still", with a soundtrack by influential American film music composer Bernard Hermann (known for Alfred Hitchcock's "Psycho", etc.), is rich with an 'extraterrestrial' score using two Heremins and other electronic devices melded with acoustic instrumentation.

Using the vacuum-tube oscillator technology of the Heremin, French cellist and radio telegraphist, Maurice Martenot (1898-1980), began developing the Ondes Martenot (in French, known as the Martenot Wave) in 1928.

Employing a standard and familiar keyboard which could be more easily mastered by a musician, Martenot's instrument succeeded where the Heremin failed in being user-friendly. In fact, it became the first successful electronic instrument to be used by composers and orchestras of its period until the present day.

It is featured on the theme to the original 1960's TV series "Star Trek", and can be heard on contemporary recordings by the likes of Radiohead and Brian Ferry.

The impressive multi-timbral Ondes Martenot, although monophonic, is the closest instrument of its generation I have heard which approaches the sound of modern synthesis.

"Forbidden Planet", released in 1956, was the first major commercial studio film to feature an exclusively electronic soundtrack … as coming from introducing Robbie the Robot and the stunning Anne Francis! The ground-breaking score was produced by husband and wife team Louis and Bebe Barron who, in the late 1940's, established the first privately owned recording studio in the USA recording electronic experimental artists such as the iconic John Cage (whose own Avante Garde work challenged the definition of music itself!).

The Barrons are generally credited for having widening the application of electronic music in cinema. A soldering iron in one hand, Louis built circuitry which he manipulated to create a plethora of bizarre, 'unearthly' effects and motifs for the movie. Once performed, these sounds could not be replicated as the circuit would purposely overload, smoke and burn out to produce the desired sound result.

Consequently, they were all recorded to tape and Bebe fitted through hours of reels edited what was deemed usable, then re-manipulated these with delay and reverberation and creatively dubbed the end product using multiple tape decks.

In addition to this laborious work method, I feel composed to include that which is, arguably, the most enduring and influential electronic Television signature ever: the theme to the long running 1963 British Sci-Fi adventure series, "Dr. Who". It was the first time a Television series featured a purely electronic theme. The theme to "Dr. Who" was created at the legendary BBC Radiophonic Workshop using tape loops and test oscillators to run through effects, record these to tape, then were re-manipulated and edited by another Electro pioneer, Delia Derbyshire, interpreting the composition of Ron Grainer.

As you can see, electronic music's prevalent usage in vintage Sci-Fi was the principle source of the general public's perception of this music as being 'other worldly' and 'alien-bizarre sounding'. This remained the case till at least 1968 with the release of the hit album "Switched-On Bach" performed entirely on a Moog modular synthesizer by Walter Carlos (who, with a few surgical nips and tucks, subsequently became Wendy Carlos).

The 1970's expanded electronic music's profile with the break through of bands like Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream, and especially the 1980's when it found more mainstream acceptance.

The Mid 1900's: Musique Concrete

In its development through the 1900's, electronic music was not solely bound to electronic circuitry being manipulated to produce sound. Back in the 1940's, a relatively new German invention – the reel-to-reel tape recorder developed in the 1930's – became the subject of interest to a number of Avante Garde European composers, most notably the French radio broadcaster and composer Pierre Schaeffer (1910) 1995) who developed a montage technique he called Musique Concrete.

Musique Concrete (meaning 'real world' existing sounds as opposed to artificial or acoustic ones produced by musical instruments) broadly involved the splicing together of recorded segments of tape containing 'found' sounds – natural, environmental, industrial and human – and manipulating these with effects such as delay, reverb, distortion, speeding up or slowing down of tape-speed (varispeed), reversing, etc.

Stockhausen actually held concerts utilizing his Musique Concrete works as backing tapes (by this stage electronic as well as 'real world' sounds were used on the recordings) on top of which live instruments would be performed by classical players responding to the mood and motifs they were hearing!

Musique Concrete had a wide impact not only on Avante Garde and effects libraries, but also on the contemporary music of the 1960's and 1970's. Important works to check are the Beatles' use of this method in ground-breaking tracks like 'Tomorrow Never Knows',' Revolution No. '. 9 'and' Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite ', as well as Pink Floyd albums "Umma Gumma", "Dark Side of the Moon" and Frank Zappa's "Lumpy Gravy". All used tape cut-ups and home-made tape loops often fed live into the main mixdown.

Today this can be performed with simplicity using digital sampling, but yesterday's heroes labored hours, days and even weeks to times complete a four minute piece! For those of us who are contemporary musicians, understanding the history of electronic music helps in appreciating the quantum leap technology has taken in the recent period. But These early innovators, these pioneers – of which there are many more down the line – and the important figures that influenced that came before us, created the revolutionary groundwork that has become our electronic musical heritage today and for this I pay them homage!

1950's: The First Computer and Synth Play Music

Moving forward a few years to 1957 and enter the first computer into the electronic mix. As you can imagine, it was not exactly a portable laptop device but consumed a whole room and user friendly was not even a concept. Nonetheless creative people kept pushing the boundaries. One of these was Max Mathews (1926 -) from Bell Telephone Laboratories, New Jersey, who developed Music 1, the original music program for computers upon which all residual digital synthesis has its roots based. Mathews, dubbed the 'Father of Computer Music', using a digital IBM Mainframe, was the first to synthesize music on a computer.

In the climax of Stanley Kubrik's 1968 movie '2001: A Space Odyssey', use is made of a 1961 Mathews' electronic rendition of the late 1800's song 'Daisy Bell'. Here the musical accompaniment is performed by his programmed mainframe together with a computer-synthesized human 'singing' voice technique pioneered in the early 60's. In the movie, as HAL the computer regresses, 'he' reverts to this song, an homage to 'his' own origins.

1957 also witnessed the first advanced synth, the RCA Mk II Sound Synthesizer (an improvement on the 1955 original). It also featured an electronic sequencer to program music performance playback. This massive RCA Synth was installed, and still remains, at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center, New York, where the legendary Robert Moog worked for a while. Universities and Tech laboratories were the main home for synth and computer music experiment in that early era.

1960's: The Dawning of The Age of Moog

The logistics and complexity of composing and even having access to what were, until then, musician unfriendly synthesizers, led to a demand for more portable playable instruments. One of the first to respond, and certainly the most successful, was Robert Moog (1934-2005). His playable synth employed the familiar piano style keyboard.

Moog's bulky telephone-operators' cable plug-in type of modular synth was not one to be transported and set up with any amount of ease or speed! But it received an awesome boost in popularity with the success of Walter Carlos, as previously mentioned, in 1968. His LP (Long Player) best seller record "Switched-On Bach" was unprepended because it appeared the first time an album appeared of fully synthesized music, as opposed to experimental sound pieces.

The album was a complex classical music performance with various multi-tracks and overdubs necessary, as the synthesizer was only monophonic! Carlos also created the electronic score for "A Clockwork Orange", Stanley Kubrik's disturbing 1972 futuristic film.

From this point, the Moog synth is prevalent on a number of late 1960's contemporary albums. In 1967 the Monkees' "Pisces, Aquarius, Capricorn & Jones Ltd" became the first commercial pop album release to feature the modular Moog. In fact, singer / drummer Mickey Dolenz purchased one of the very first units sold.

It was not until the early 1970's, however, when the first Minimoog appeared that interest seriously developed amongst musicians. This portable little unit with a fat sound had a significant impact becoming part of live music kit for many touring musicians for years to come. Other companies such as Sequential Circuits, Roland and Korg began producing their own synths, giving birth to a music subculture.

I can not close the chapter on the 1960's, however, without reference to the Mellotron. This electronic-mechanical instrument is often viewed as the primitive precursor to the modern digital sampler.

Developed in early 1960's Britain and based on the Chamberlin (a cumbersome US-designed instrument from the previous decade), the Mellotron keyboard triggered pre-recorded tapes, each key corresponding to the equivalent note and pitch of the pre-loaded acoustic instrument.

The Mellotron is legendary for its use on the Beatles' 1966 song 'Strawberry Fields Forever'. A flute tape-bank is used on the haunting introduction played by Paul McCartney.

The instrument's popularity burgeoned and was used on many records of the era such as the immensely successful Moody Blues epic 'Nights in White Satin'. The 1970's saw it adopted more and more by progressive rock bands. Electronic pioneers Tangerine Dream featured it on their early albums.

With time and further advances in microchip technology though, this charming instrument has become a relic of its period.

1970's: The Birth of Vintage Electronic Bands

The early fluid albums of Tangerine Dream such as "Phaedra" from 1974 and Brian Eno's work with his self-coined 'ambient music' and on David Bowie's "Heroes" album, further drew interest in the synthesizer from both musicians and audience.

Kraftwerk, whose 1974 seminal album "Autobahn" achieved international commercial success, took the medium even further adding precision, pulsating electronic beats and rhythms and sublime synth melodies. Their minimalism suggested a cold, industrial and computerized-urban world. They often utilized vocoders and speech synthesis devices such as the gorgeous robotic 'Speak and Spell' voice emulator, the latter being a children's learning aid!

While inspired by the experimental electronic works of Stockhausen, as artists, Kraftwerk were the first to successfully combine all the elements of electronically generated music and noise and produce an easily recognizable song format. The addition of vocals in many of their songs, both in their native German tongue and English, helped earn them universal acclaim becoming one of the most influential contemporary music pioneers and performers of the past half-century.

Kraftwerk's 1978 gem 'Das Modell' hit the UK number one spot with a reissued English language version, 'The Model', in February 1982, making it one of the earliest Electro chart toppers!

Ironically, though, it took a movement that had no association with EM (Electronic Music) to facilitate its broader mainstream acceptance. The mid 1970's punk movement, primarily in Britain, brought with it a unique new attitude: one that possesses priority to self-expression rather than performance dexterity and formal training, as embodied by contemporary progressive rock musicians. The initial aggression of metallic punk transformed into a less abrasive form during the late 1970's: New Wave. This, combined with the comparative affordability of many small, easy to use synthesizers, led to the commercial synth explosion of the early 1980's.

A new generation of young people began to explore the potential of these instruments and began to create soundscapes challenging the prevailing perspective of contemporary music. This did not arrive without battle scars though. The music industry establishment, especially in its media, often derided this new form of expression and presentation and was an exotic to consign it to the dustbin of history.

1980's: The First Golden Era of Electronic Music for the Masses

Gary Numan became arguably the first commercial synth megastar with the 1979 "Tubeway Army" hit 'Are Friends Electric?'. The Sci-Fi element is not too far away once again. Some of the imagery is drawn from the Science Fiction classic, "Do Dooms Dream of Electric Sheep?". The 1982 hit film "Blade Runner" was also based on the same book.

Although 'Are Friends Electric?' featured conventional drum and bass backing, its dominant use of Polymoogs gives the song its very distinct sound. The recording was the first synth-based release to achieve number one chart status in the UK during the post-punk years and helped usher in a new genre. No longer was electronic and / or synthesizer music consigned to the mainstream sidelines. Exciting!

Further developments in affordable electronic technology placed electronic squarely in the hands of young creators and began to transform professional studios.

Designed in Australia in 1978, the Fairlight Sampler CMI became the first commercially available polyphonic digital sampling instrument but its prohibitive cost saw it solely in use by the likes of Trevor Horn, Stevie Wonder and Peter Gabriel. By mid-decade, however, smaller, cheaper instruments entered the market such as the ubiquitous Akai and Emulator Samplers often used by musicians live to replicate their studio-recorded sounds. The Sampler revolutionized the production of music from this point on.

In most major markets, with the qualified exception of the US, the early 1980's was commercially drawn to electro-influenced artists. This was an exciting era for many of us, myself included. I know I was not alone in closing the distorted guitar and amps and immersing myself into a new universe of musical expression – a sound world of the abstract and non traditional.

At home, Australian synth based bands Real Life ('Send Me An Angel', 'Heartland' album), Icehouse ('Hey Little Girl') and Pseudo Echo ('Funky Town') began to chart internationally, and more experimental electronic outfits like Severed Heads and SPK also developed cult followings overseas.

But by mid-decade the first global electronic wave lost its momentum amidst resistance fostented by an unlenting old school music media. Most of the artists that began the decade as predominately electro-based either disintegrated or heavily hybrid their sound with traditional rock instrumentation.

The USA, the largest world market in every sense, remained in the conservative music wings for much of the 1980's. Although synth-based records did hit the American charts, the first being Human League's 1982 US chart topper 'Do not You Want Me Baby?', On the whole it was to be a few more years before the American mainstream embraced electronic music, at which point it consolidated itself as a dominant genre for musicians and audiences alike, worldwide.

1988 was somewhat of a watershed year for electronic music in the US. Often maligned in the press in their early years, it was Depeche Mode that unintentionally – and mostly unaware – spearheaded this new assault. From cult status in America for much of the decade, their new high-play rotation on what was now termed Modern Rock radio rejected in mega stadium performances. An Electro act playing sold out arenas was not common fare in the USA at that time!

In 1990, fan pandemonium in New York to greet the members at a centralized record shop made TV news, and their "Violator" album outselling Madonna and Prince in the same year made them a US household name. Electronic music was here to stay, without a doubt!

1990's Onward: The Second Golden Era of Electronic Music for the Masses

Before our 'star music' secured its hold on the US mainstream, and while it was losing commercial ground everywhere through much of the mid 1980's, Detroit and Chicago became unassuming laboratories for an explosion of Electronic Music which would see out much of the 1990's and onwards. Enter Techno and House.

Detroit in the 1980's, a post-Fordism US industrial wastand, produced the harder European influenced Techno. In the early to mid 80's, Detroiter Juan Atkins, an obsessive Kraftwerk fan, together with Derrick May and Kevin Saunderson – using primitive, often borrowed equipment – formed the backbone of what would become, together with House, the predominant music club-culture through the world. Heavily referenced artists that informed early Techno development were European pioneers such as the Chairman Kraftwerk, as well as Yello and British Electro acts the likes of Depeche Mode, Human League, Heaven 17, New Order and Cabaret Voltaire.

Chicago, a four-hour drive away, simultaneously saw the development of House. The name is generally considered to be derived from "The Warehouse" where various DJ-Producers featured this new music amalgam. House has its roots in 1970's disco and, unlike Techno, usually has some form of vocal. I think Giorgio Moroder's work in the mid 70's with Donna Summer, especially the song 'I Feel Love', is pivotal in appreciating the 70's disco influences upon burgeoning Chicago House.

A myriad of variants and sub genres have developed since – crossing the Atlantic, reworked and back again – but in many ways the popular success of these two core forms revitalized the entire Electronic landscape and its associated social culture. Techno and House helped to substantially challenge mainstream and Alternative Rock as the preferred listening choice for a new generation: a generation who has grown up with electronic music and accepts it as a given. For them, it is music that has always been.

The history of electronic music continues to be written as technology advances and people's expectations of where music can go continues to push it forward, increasing its vocabulary and lexicon.


Source by George E Pappas

Preparing For a Summer of Electronic Music Festivals

MattSowardsUncategorizedLeave a Comment

The summer is generally considered the prime season for entertainment, particularly for music. Festivals for all genres are scheduled during this time and, for electronic music, this is no exception. While electronic dance music has evolved from the illegal rave parties of the 1990s into legitimate music events (many even lasting two days), knowing which events to attend depends where you're willing to travel.

A recent article in the New York Times discussed the phenomenon of techno tourism: the traveling to various music events and festivals for favorite DJs and acts. Although such habits and fandom is seen for many other genres, with the most heightened being fans of jam band music, this appears to be a recent – or possibly more visible – development in electronic music.

Usually, electronic dance music, to the average person looking from the outside into the genre, is still centered around the clubs and a DJ is still someone who plays records. But, much like jam band music in which the guitarists may play a different solo at every gig, the mixing and production techniques for a good and reputable DJ will vary with each gig, as well. Essentially, this aspect is what fuels the fans to travel from gig to gig – what changes and new production will the DJ add each night?

When it comes to summer music events, many of the major ones start in the spring and go into the summer. Some, even, are scheduled right before fall starts.

In the United States, the schedule of major summer festivals essentially starts in late March – the start of spring – with the Winter Music Conference and the Ultra Music festival that closes the week-long event. The Winter Music Conference, held in Florida, covers all aspects of electronic music through workshops, panel discussions, and performances. DJ production and scratching techniques are both covered through the event. The electronic music festival following reads like a who's-who of electronic musicians, often with one of the top DJs headlining the event.

Past this point, Coachella, in California, often has many well-known names for instrumental and DJ electronic music added. New Order, La Roux, and Depeche Mode have been acts on the bill in recent years, and a separate DJ tent has an all-day lineup of music. Additionally, the end of the summer brings Electric Zoo in New York, which has been offering two days of electronic music acts from DJs to instrumental music.

England also has its share of electronic music, too. The summer months will have some of the country's largest festivals, such as Creamfields and Global Gathering. Both festivals attract some of the top names in DJing short of making a trip to Ibiza. But, then again, many wanting a vacation combined with beats from their favorite DJ will make a special trip to the Balearic paradise.


Source by Randy B

The 7 Best Ways to Promote an Event For Free

MattSowardsUncategorizedLeave a Comment

For some businesses, event marketing comes naturally. They have the resources to throw a bunch of money at 3rd parties and the promotions take care of themselves. They've done it before, they know the drill and they know it will work.

For the rest of us, event marketing is a timely endeavor and a risky use of precious time where the returns are not guaranteed. But who says event marketing has to cost hundreds or thousands of dollars? While we may not have the resources to hire fantastic speakers or offer discounts that will break the bank, we do have the ability to compete on a higher level. With a few tricks up our sleeves, we can reach our goals to generate interest and leads for weeks to come.

Believe it or not, you actually have the power at your fingertips to promote your event and follow through with a rich, winning marketing campaign for free. Here's how …

1) Leverage your network – The term leverage may be beaten-to-death marketing cliché, but there's a reason it's said so much and it boils down to this – the people most likely to believe in you and come to your events are the people you already know and their friends. Make them aware of your event by posting status updates, website banners, email blasts and telling them about it in person. You want the bandwagon effect here. People are much more likely to show interest if their friends are involved.

2) Encourage RSVPs via social media There are three main benefits to using social sign up services like Eventbrite. For one, they're simple to use and they make it easy set up coupon codes, calendars, and guest lists. Secondly, they make your life easier because the transactions are taken care of, you only pay a percentage of the revenue, and you benefit from people finding your event in the search feature. Lastly, the social elements make it easy for someone to tell their friends and encourage a higher participation rate.

3) Share of the event through social channels – You know Facebook events and LinkedIn events are free right? You literally can not lose here. On top of that, social notifications tend to multiply the bandwagon effect and you want the bandwagon effect . Why? Because when someone signs up for your rockin 'event, a notice will show up in their friends newsfeeds and pique their interests. Chances are, their friends are in similar markets and demographics and they are the people most likely to attend.

4) #Hashtags are your friends – If your event does not have a hashtags associated with it- shame on you. Hashtags are a great way to build buzz around your event and connect the people who are signing up, at the event, and following up. Word to the wise- you'll want to take a second to check Twitter before you pick a hashtag, to make sure no one else it using it. After that, claim your territory by tweeting it and adding it to all the other promotions. By notifying the attendees, in turn they will add the hashtag to their related tweets before, during and after the event. If you happen to be a social media jedi / guru / rockstar, you'll want to interact with the tweeps through the event. At minimum though, you should keep an eye on who's tweeting and make an effort to connect with them.

5) Live Blog the Event – If you're a man (or woman) show, this probably will not be possible. But if you have a team, make sure someone is tweeting the good stuff in real time, using the hashtag of course- It's a great way to draw more interest to your company. By sharing updates and nuggets of wisdom, you'll earn retweets and exposure to the followers of the event and the attendees for free .

6) Record videos and share them afterwards – If you have speakers, this is a must. Granted they'll have to be on board, but if they're on board with marketing in the 21st century, this should not be a problem. A great video can garner thousands of views on youtube and provide wonderful follow-up content and leads for both parties. Free information? What a great way to give back to your industry. Who would have thought great free content is a lead generation tool?

7) While you're at it, why not have a live video stream? If you really want viral attention, you'll need people tweeting your event from around the world. While I doubt non-attendees would actively engage with a Twitter stream, they will engage with a live video and complete it with Twitter. But does not sound sound expensive? Well, it's actually free with this neat little workaround using Google+ and Youtube. Stream the video live, save it for later and save a boatload of money on marketing.

Do you have your own tips for promoting events? Share them in the comments section below for brownie points.


Source by Ryan J Connors

Top 20 Guitarists Of All Time – Guitar Players

MattSowardsUncategorizedLeave a Comment

It was a dark and rainy night. The courthouse clock stuck midnight; a stray dog ​​hind. It was all too beautiful when the staff of Gear Vault convened for their semi-annual secret meeting with the confines of the beloved cinder block chamber that they call their "office." Their agenda? To decide the 20 most important people in guitar.

1. Jimi Hendrix

Widely recognized as one of the most creative and influential musicians of the 20th century, Jimi Hendrix pioneered the explosive possibilities of the electric guitar. Hendrix's innovative style of combining fuzz, feedback and controlled distortion created a new musical form. Because he was unable to read or write music, it is nothing short of remarkable that Jimi Hendrix's meteoric rise in the music took place in just four short years. His musical language continues to influence a host of modern musicians, from George Clinton to Miles Davis, and Steve Vai to Jonny Lang. Hendrix was the revolutionary guitar god, enuff said!

2. Edward Van Halen

Edward Van Halen once likened his guitar playing to "falling down the stairs and landing on my feet." Eddie's had thirteen albums' worth of such happy accidents and in the process has changed the way people play, hear and think about the electric guitar. With his unorthodox technique, dare-devil whammy bar antics and fearless experimentation, Van Halen revitalized heavy guitar after it had run its course in the Seventies. Espousing an I-just-play-that's-all-I-do attitude and favorite basic gear like stock Marshalls. Peavey 5150s, homemade, slapped together guitars and simple, minimal stop box effects, Van Halen became guitar's greatest hero by becoming its unassuming anti-hero.

From the jaw-dropping gymnastics of Van Halen's "Eruption" to the eerie, tidal crescendos of "Catherdral" on Diver Down, through his 1984 chart-topping synth experiments and spirit of 5150 and For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge, Eddie has remained innovative through his career. Never one to wait around for the electrician, Van Halen prefers building his own gear-and if it does not always look pretty, well, beauty is in the ear of holder. By "Frankensteining" his first striped guitar from $ 130 worth of parts, Van Halen launched his quest for the elusive "brown sound-" big, warm and majestic "-and wave rock guitarists a new holy grail of tone to seek in the post- His single-pick up and volume control innovation changed the way guitars looked and sounded, popularized the previously obscure Kramer Guitars, and inspired the do-it-yourself guitar gear industry. with Sterling Ball on his Music Man guitars prove that Van Halen still believes the artist should retain creative input on his equipment.

As a player, Van Halen single-handedly-well, dual-handedly-introduced millions of rock players such exciting techniques as two-handed tapping and harmonics. Before 1978, guitar just had to be loud and fast. Eddie's playing is also tasteful and always in context, a fact that defines him from his legions of imitators. While he's unimpressed by the copycat syndrome, it can not be denied that many players first picked up a guitar after Van Halen's dazzling licks. But none of them can fall down the stairs with such brilliance.

3. Eric Clapton

Eric Clapton has successfully reinvented himself dozens of times: Rave-Up King with the Yardbirds; Holy Father of the Anglo-blues with the Bluesbreakers; free-form improvisational genius with Cream; chameleon increases to every musical occasion.

By 1965 the 20-year-old Clapton was already a legend. He'd introduced the blues to the masses, interpreting and updating what had been a terribly unknown form for the rock generation. Simultaneously, his lush, Les Paul-driven tone marked the absolute turning point in the history of rock, transforming what had been a good-time twang instrument into a vehicle for substantial expression.

Ultimately, the most enduring image of the great guitarist will be of Clapton the bluesman, standing on a corner of a stage and exposing his psychic wounds to the masses. It is interesting, though, that, while "bluesy" in feel, his most memorable songs- "Layla," "Tears In Heaven" -do not use the blues structure.

While most of Clapton's contemporaries talk reunion and revival, he never retries behind memories of his "good old days." His Unplugged album, which was apparently successful-both for him and acoustic guitar manufactures-included a radical remake of "Layla." Clapton is one artist who has learned how to grow up.

4. Paul McCartney

Paul McCartney has spent very little of his career playing six-string guitar. But as a bassist, he almost single-handedly made guitar players' jobs a whole lot easier.

When the Beatles first arrived on the scene, rarely the bass even heard on most pop records; players seldom attempted anything more adventurous than a root-fifth accompaniment. But McCartney, who not only played bass, but sang, enlivened the Beatles' material with dynamic, moving basslines on his famous Hofner and later, a Rickenbacker 4001. By the time the Beatles began work on Sergeant Pepper's, McCartney as pumping out bass melodies that carried entire songs, with the result that the Beatles' guitar parts often became sparser, more bowl. Within months-and to this day-bass players the world over were unshackled.

5. Pete Townshend

Before Pete Townshend came along, feedback was something guitarists shunned like halitosis. Pete turned it into one of rock guitar's most powerful sonic resources.

Soon after The Who debuted in 1964, Townshend became legendary for violently slamming his guitar into his Marshall stack (a form of amplification he was the first to use) and smashing his instrument to splinters at the end of each show. All of this had a substantial impact on Jimi Hendrix (aka The Guitar God # 1) and just about every other rocker who ever picked up a guitar. Pete's trademark "windmill" strum was actually swiped from Keith Richards. But Townshend made it even bigger and more dramatic-which is what he and The Who did with just about everything they touched. Having mastered the art of the three-minute pop song, Townshend turned his attention to 15-minute mini-operas and, with Tommy in 1969, the worlds first double album rock opera. Townshend's songwriting genius and theatrical flair tend to obscure the fact that he is also a fine guitarist, as capable of supple lyricism as he is of angry mayhem.

6. George Harrison

When George Harrison strummed his first chord during the Beatles' historic appearance on the Ed Sullivan show 44 years ago, he became the catalyst for the electric guitar's metamorphosis from stringed instruments to tool of teenage liberation. And, as the folks at Gretsch and Rickenbacker will read attest, it did not exactly hurt sales, either.

While Harrison has never been a virtuoso guitarist, he was an innovator-constantly pushing the limits of studio sounds and stylistic boundaries. In many ways, he also was the first modern session musician, his chops as diverse and far-reaching as Lennon and McCartney's songwriting. He could dish up brilliant Scotty Moore-style rockabilly ("All My Loving"), heart-rendering gut-string lines ("And I lover") and sheer fuzz and fury ("Revolution") – always adding something memorable to the material . Later in his career, he developed an original slide style that is more melodic than bluesy. Like the Beatles as a whole, Harrison never settled into a comfortable groove. He glided across the musical spectrum-from country and western to spaced-out psychedelia to smooth and sweet slide-shattering conventions and then moving on.

7. Angus Young

Two decades after Angus Young first emerged AC / DC's axe-wielding dervish at age 14, the we Scottish Aussie remains one of the sturdiest bridges between young metal-ists and rock's blues roots. Although he did great work before and since, Young will always be best known for 1980's Back In Black, a blue-collar masterpiece which, with killer classics like "You Shook Me All Night Long," remains an all-purpose primer for riff writing and tight, scalar lead playing. Never mind the fact that the man does it all while spinning around like chinchilla on speed. Although he may be dwarfed by his signature oxblood SG, Angus Young is a giant among men.

8. Jimmy Page

Arguably the most emulated guitarist in rock history, Jimmy Page is additionally assured a place in the music's pantheon of greats for his roles as a musical director, produce and all-around guru of Led Zeppelin.

His Rampaging, blues-based work on anthems like "Whole Lotta Love," "Communication Breakdown" and "Rock And Roll" defines heavy metal. His real genius, however, was his ability to expand the parameters of the genre to include elements of traditional English folk, reggae, funk, rockabilly and Arabic classical music.

Page the guitarist has never been a facile as Edward Van Halen or Steve Via, but few players in rock history have been able to match his restless imagination or visionary approach to guitar orchestra. Whether he was exploring the exotic joys of open tuning on tracks like "Kashmir" and "Black Mountain Side," pioneering the use if back echo on "You Shook Me," or coaxing other worldly sounds from his '58 Les Paul with a cello bow on "Dazed And Confused," Page consistently shifted the limitations of his instrument and the recording studio.

More than 30 years have passed since Page recorded the seminal Led Zepplin IV, but the album's gigantic imprint can still be detected in the work of such cutting edge bands as Jane's Addiction, Stone Temple Pilots and Soundgarden, to name a few. Page, of course, remains active. His sense, mutli-layered work on the Coverdale / Page record demonstrated his refusal to rest his laurels.

9. Kurt Cobain

Kurt Cobain was the intense and unkempt grunge lord who brought Nirvana from obscurity to the top of the charts, was all the rage-literally. The king of the guitar anti-hero, he did not play his Fender Jaguars but he mauled them in a chord-crunching fury. Inevitably, he smashed his guitars, littered stages around the world with his splintered victims.

Cobain was a guitar pioneer because he managed to fuse into one dynamic style the aggression of Seventies punk rock, the speed and simplicity of Eighties hardcore and the bottom-heavy crunch of Nineties metal-and done so without a trace of silliness or bombast to which all three genres are prone.

There's little doubt that scores of new players have been inspired to plug in by the chugging chords of Cobain's "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Segovia he was not. But Segovia never captured the angst of an entire generation with one burst of ungodly feedback.

10. David Gilmour

What makes David Gilmour really remarkable is his uncanny ability to marry two seemingly contradictory genres-progressive rock and blues. Perhaps the most dramatic example of this unusual union can be heard on one of Pink Floyd's biggest hits, "Money" (Dark Side Of The Moon). As the song begins, Gilmour slowly builds a delicate network of spacious, effected guitars, only to topple them with a series of emotionally charged, vibrato-drenched solos, which rich, shimmering tone and impossible phrasing recall BB King, rather than King Crimson.

Gilmour is the rarest of rockers. Like Jimi Hendrix, he ahs the natural ability to balance the cerebral with the emotional, the technical with instinctual, while keeping an eye on both the past and the future. It is this awesome juggling act that is the secret to Pink Floyd's lying appeal.

11. Keith Richards

Keith Richards is the archetypal rock outlaw, the quintessential skinny English rock guitarist in a tight black suit. He's filled that role since the Rolling Stones first established themselves as the dark, dangerous alternative to the Beatles in 1963. With his deep love of the blues, Keef initiated a generation of white, middle-class kids into the wonders of Muddy Waters, howling Wolf and Chuck Berry. His unique five-string, open-G tuning lies at the heart of such all-time power chord classics as "Jumpin 'Jack Flash" and "Street Fighting Man." As a soloist, Keef has worked a few miracles; witness the icy, amphetamine mesmerism of his licks on "Sympathy For The Devil" and his buoyant bending on "Happy." And he is the author of the most-played riff in all rock: the tritone mating call of "Satisfaction." Much has been made of Richards' fondness of controlled substances, but his ultimate drug is music; His knowledge of rock, blues and reggae is encyclopedic, his passion for them boundless. They have sustained him through imprimination, addiction, tempestuous lines of his leathery face, the history of rock and roll is etched.

12. Eric Johnson

In a realm often dominated by ham-fisted machoismo, Eric Johnson stands apart as rock guitar's elegant poet laureate. He has managed to create an original style from such radically dissimilar sources as country chicken picking, Jimi Hendrix and jazzman Wes Montgomery. A legend long before he became famous, Johnson's seemingly endless, melodious lines and distinctive "violin" tone made it an absolute requirement for guitarists stopping near the Texan's hometown of Austin to attend his show there in the early / mid 1980s.

After turning down numerous offers to tour as a sideman, he rose to prominence in 1986 with his critically acclaimed, Grammy-nominated album, Tones. His follow-up, Ah Via Musicom, thrust the self-effacing innovator further into the spotlight, yielding one Grammy-winning cut ("Cliffs Of Dover") and eventually going gold. Combining passion and lyricism with what can only be described as an overwhelmingly positive vibe, Johnson's music is progressive without being academic, uplifting without stooping to sentimentality.

13. Buddy Guy

"Part of my reason for forming Cream was I suddenly had this mad idea about being English Buddy Guy; my goal was to be Buddy Guy with a composing bass player … And to this day, when he's on I do not think anyone It can take you away to somewhere completely different. " -Eric Clapton

"Buddy Guy is as close as you can come to the hear of the blues." -Jeff Beck

"He plays one note and you forget about the rent." -Carlos Santana

"Nobody can get out of tune as cool as Buddy Guy." Stevie Ray Vaughan

14. Yngwie Malmsteen

Two schools of thought have sprung over the years relating Yngwie J. Malmsteen. On the one hand, the Swedish native's incredibly accurate, rapid-fire playing has earned him as a proficient and brilliant artist, the founder and most important exponent of neo-classical guitar. From the point of view of this school, the effortless blend of raw spead, finesse and passion that has characterized Malmsteen's style since his 1984 solo debut, Rising Force, represents the pinnacle of fretboard achievement. Yngwie is also credited with popularizing the scalloped guitar neck.

But Yngwie is also scorned by many in the guitar community, who loathe him with an intensity that meets the ardor of his most devoted boosters. To group, Malmsteen was the architect of cold, empty guitar style, which emphasized technique over art, speed over feel. They rejoice over the apprentice demise of neo-classicism. And how do you plead-for Yngwie or against?

15. Dimebag Darrell

This authentic, crimson-bearded lone star madman had written the book on heavy metal riffing in the short space by many major-label releases. By combining the virtuosity of Edward Van Halen with the rhythmic drive of a glue-sniffing punk rocker, the legend Pantera guitarist had created a highly individual sound that that appeals to classic rockers, fans of death metal and industrial headbangers. On Pantera's March 15, 1994 release, Far Beyond Driven, Darrell solidified his reputation as one of metal's true origins on tracks like "Good Friends And A Bottle Of Pills," which combines hell-and-damn riffing with the kind of abrasive avant- garde noodling that put Sonic Youth on the map.

16. John Petrucci

Known with Dream Theater, John Petrucci is proud to be progressive. "Our style is completely different from grunge and alternative music," says the 41-year-old Berklee-trained musician. "But I think our music has as much attitude as any of those bands."

Dream Theater is known for a complicated, textured style of hard rock that embraces flawless musicianship, lengthy improve sections, danging arrangements and other flashy elements made popular by Yes, Kansas, Rush and other old-school rockers. Leading the progressive charge is the technically masterful Petrucci, which plays encompasses angular melodic phrases, liquid chromatics and manic dispays of speed-picking into an exciting, coherent style.

His reputation, the Ibanez-wielding shredder remains modest; "Being looked at as a guitar hero is very flattering, but being singled out away from the rest of the band does not appeal to me," says Petrucci. "I'd prefer to have people view me as a talented musician in a good band-not as some flashy soloist." Not a chance.

17. BB King

As the universally hailed ambassador of the blues, BB King has introduced his favorite music to more people the world over than all other artists combined. In fact, he's so highly visible-popping up everywhere from ads for Northwestern Airlines and McDonald's to episode of "Sanford And Son" and "Married With Children" -that it's easy to take for granted and forget why he became so revered in the first place.

BB King has an incredibly expressive, vocal vibrato and an unmistakable, ring tone, both of which have been imitated by legions of admirers. He is also the master of the perfectly placed bent note, stretching his strings with eloquence, brilliant timing and consistently perfect intonation. But what is perhaps most impressive about BB King is that despite hanging over 300 nights a year for decades, and despite having attained cultural icon status long ago, he has avoided slipping into complacency. He never plays the same solo twice and to this day stretches himself, demonstrating night after night exactly why he is the King Of The Blues.

18. Joe Satriani and Steve Vai – Both rockers are equal practitioners and talent.

Starting with Joe Satriani, a walking warehouse of virtually every rock guitar style and technique ever developed. From delicate, classical-style finger-picking to the most profane vibrato-bar molestation, Joe knows it all. He elevates the level of whatever he's playing with his passion for sonic adventure and dead-eye sense of song and orchestration.

Like a human melting pot, Satriani has managed to integrate such disparate influences as surf guitar, world beat and Jimi Hendrix into his playing. His much-lauded 1987 breakthrough album, Surfing With The Alien, almost single-handedly rehabilitated instrumental rock as a mainstream genre and help bury the myth that was not thought, educated player could not rock. In the manner of the Blow By Blow-era Jeff Beck. Satriani employs his superior technique and seemingly inexplicable vocabulary of licks, riffs and styles in the service of memorable songs (rather than the other way around). And he continues to do this exhibitionism, traps that have foiled too many of his peers.

Steve Vai's unparallel technique and effortless flash made him rock's paramount pair of hired hands in the 1980's. He rendered PIL more accessible, empowered David Lee Roth, wave Whitesnake artistic credibility and even shredded for the Devil in a sensational performance in the film Crossroads.

But it was with 1990's Passion And Warfare-despite the most anticipated guitar release of all time-that Vai crystallized his technical skills, incredible drive and explosive vision into a sensitive, acutely personal guitar statement. He lifts gears with the greatest of ease, gliding from delicate lyricism to the back. Like a demented circus master, Vai has the power to amuse and frighten with his most dangerous menagerie of sound.

19. Joe Perry

For 35 years, through not one or two, but several climbs to the top, Aerosmith's Joe Perry has been living a testimony to the power of a Bad-Ass Attitude. Perry's perpetual sneer is expressed not merely on his chiseled face, but also through his guitars and overdriven amps. Of course, he's also written some pretty decent riffs, the best of which completely defines their song; it's impossible for even non-guitarists to think of "Walk This Way" or "Sweet Emotion" without humming Perry's etched-in-stone guitar lines.

20. Zakk Wylde

Zakk Wylde's hellacious guitar playing and charismatic stage presence made him a keeper of the heavy metal flame with Ozzy Osbourne for many years. But you are not heard nothin 'yet. Zakk stared at a few bands of his own, Pride & Glory and his most recent, Black Label Society (BLS), frenzied, high octane slab of guitar mayhem. It's a molten mix of Zakk's two selves: his heavy, energetic Ozzyfield side and the hell-bent Southern rocker and ruthless side. Step out of the way and make peace with yo 'maker, son.


Source by Chaz Beers