Decoding The Depression Puzzle

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Are We Overusing Antidepressants?

Eleven percent of Americans over 12 years old take antidepressants, which is the second most commonly prescribed medication in the US, after cholesterol-lowering drugs. Many more women than men use them. About 21 percent of women aged 20 and over take them; some women aged 40-59, the rate is 25 percent.

Antidepressants are psychiatric medications used to treat mood disorders including depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The most widely used antidepressants are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a class of drugs that includes medicines such as Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, and Lexapro. Less used but a popular alternative to SSRIs are serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs); some of the commonly used medicines in this drug class include Effexor and Cymbalta.

With such a high preponderance of usage, some may wonder whether we have become a Prozac nation. Others question if these medications are handed out to patients too casually.

Who Is Prescribing Antidepressants?

In the US nearly 80 percent of antidepressant prescriptions are written by primary care physicians, not psychiatrists. Many depressed patients seen in general practice have not been thoroughly evaluated and may not even meet the full, formal criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Instead, they are given the medications for symptoms of mild depression, often caused by everyday stress, sadness, and sorrow, which may be alleviated by psychotherapy alone. Pediatric use for depression and anxiety has also skyrocketed but it peaked in 2004 when the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a black box warning for SSRIs due to evidence that they may be linked to increased risk of suicidal thinking, feeling, and behavior in young people.

Low Serotonin Levels Do not Necessarily Cause Depression

SSRIs and SNRIs were developed to treat depression and other mental health conditions caused by an imbalance of neurotransmitter chemicals, particularly serotonin and norepinephrine. This chemical imbalance theory purports that low levels of these chemicals in the brain cause depression. For over two decades, this theory continues to be the dominant paradigm for treating depression.

However, the chemical imbalance hypothesis has its problems and numerous scientific studies conducted in the last 20 years have examined it and restored it. They found that:

  • Not all depressed patients have low serotonin and norepinephrine levels.
  • In fact, some have abnormally high levels, while others with no history of depression have low levels of these chemicals.

The significance of this finding is huge, yet it is rarely publicized or taught in medical schools. There are probably various reasons for this but financial is likely to be one of them – antidepressants are a $ 10 billion industry!

Antidepressants Do not Always Work

If depression is not caused by an imbalance of serotonin and norepinephrine, then it will explain why antidepressants do not always work on people who have depression. Countless studies have been done to determine the effectiveness of these medicines.

A massive meta-study compiled by the US government that incorporated findings of over 100,000 research studies over a 15-year period concluded that:

  • Antidepressants are only effective in around one-third of cases, and partially effective in another third, and have no benefit at all in the remaining third.
  • High rate of relapse when depression is treated with drugs alone.
  • For many patients, the side effects are more unpleasant than the depression itself, so they discontinue usage.

Likewise, a number of double-blind, randomized controlled studies have come to similar conclusions. They found that:

  • The superiority of antidepressants over placebo is clinically significant only for patients who are very severely depressed.
  • For those with mild, moderate, and even severe depression, placebos work nearly as well as the medications.

Plus They Have Side Effects

Like most medications, antidepressants have side effects, including nausea, weight gain, loss of sexual desire, fatigue, insomnia, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, agitation, irritability, and anxiety.

They are not addictive to the same way substances like heroin or alcohol are, but people can still develop a physical dependence if they stop taking the drugs abruptly and may experience rather unsuccessful withdrawal symptoms such as:

  • Anxiety
  • Insomnia or vivid dreams
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Tiredness
  • Irritability
  • Flu-like symptoms, including achy muscles and chills
  • Nausea
  • Electric shock sensations
  • Return of depressive symptoms

Compelling Evidence: Inflammation As A Contributing Factor To Depression

There is a huge body of research connecting depression and inflammation. In one of the most comprehensive findings, a study in JAMA Psychiatry determined that brain inflammation was 30 percent higher in clinically depressed patients. The research team pointed out that previous studies have only looked at biomarkers of inflammation in the blood; This is the first to find definitive evidence in the brain.

Scientists have long known that infection is at the root of nearly every modern disease, including allergies, Alzheimer's, arthritis, asthma, autoimmune disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. So it is not a huge surprise that depression is also linked to inflammation.

Researchers found that people with clinical depression have elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers such as cytokines in the blood. Cytokines cruise through the bloodstream, damaging tissue, causing plaque buildup in the treaties, and sometimes even promoting the growth of tumors.

Cytokines can also travel to the brain, possibly through the vagus nerve which connects the gut and the brain. Specialized immune cells in the brain called microglia became activated in inflammatory states and they too, secure cytokines.

Neuroinflammation alters neurotransmitter pathways and brain circuits. In the early 1980s, researchers have already discovered that inflammatory cytokines produce a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological symptoms mirroring characteristically signs and symptoms of depression.

Known Causes Of Inflammation

If infection is a contributing factor to depression, it is critical to understand how we get inflammation in the first place. This correlation has the potential to suggest both therapeutic and preventive approaches to combating depression.

Stress and traumatic life events

Researchers reported that acute negative life events, chronic psychological trauma, and exposure to childhood trauma hugely increase the risk of developing clinical depression and mood symptoms. There is very strong evidence that different types of psychosocial stressors may stimulate the pro-inflammatory cytokine network in the brain.

Diet

There have been substantial changes to dietary patterns over the last 50 years. We have swapped a diet high in fiber, nutrient -ense foods, and omega-3 fats (all anti-inflammatory) to one that is high in refined carbohydrates, sugar, and unhealthy refined oils (all highly pro-inflammatory). Since 2009, there have been numerous studies reporting adverse associations between diet quality and common mental disorders in children and adults across cultures.

Exercise

Many studies found that exercise is an effective treatment strategy for depression. Regular exercise protects against the development of new depressive and anxiety disorders while physical inactivity during childhood is associated with an increased risk of depression in adulthood.

Obesity

Without doubt, obesity is an inflammatory state. Inflammatory cytokines are found in abundance in fat cells.

With the prevalence of obesity increasing to epidemic proportions, studies have demonstrated a close relationship between obesity and depression. Obesity predisposes one to depression, while depression also predisposes one to obesity. A recent meta-analysis found obesity to increase the risk of later depression by 55%, whereas depression increased the risk of developing obesity by 58%.

Gut permeability

Another diet-related cause of inflammation is gut permeability or "leaky gut". Under normal circumstances, immune cells are geographically separated from gram negative bacteria in the gut, which are part of the normal gut flora. However, if there is a loosing of the tight junction barrier in the gut wall, toxins produced by gram negative bacterium called lipopolysaccharides (LPS) may get into the bloodstream, causing immune cells to respond and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Since the gut and brain are connected by the vagus nerve, mental disorders are highly associated with gut permeability.

The most common causes of leaky gut are:

  • Food sensitivity, such as gluten (a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley) and dairy.
  • Chronic gut infections, such as parasites, Cryptosporidium, Clostridium difficile, Blastocystis hominis, and Helicobacter pylori.

Smoking

Cigarette smoke contains many thousands of chemicals, many of which induce inflammatory responses in the body and direct damage to cell tissues in the brain. Studies showed that smoking may increase one's susceptibility to developing depression.

Periodontal disease

Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease that involves infections of the structures around the teeth, which include the gum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Periodontal disease is associated with high levels of systemic inflammatory cytokines. It is a significant predictor of other inflammatory illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, and may also increase the risk of depression as well.

Sleep deprivation

Research has demonstrated that chronic sleep deprivation results in impairments in immune functioning, characterized by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is estimated that up to 80-90 percent of individuals who suffer from a major depressive disorder experience sleep disorders. Studies have suggested that sleep disturbances may also predispose individuals to consequent development of mood disorders.

Vitamin D

There is a high priority of vitamin D deficiency in developed countries. Low vitamin D is linked to many diseases including osteoporosis and cancer. Vitamin D receptors are present in key brain areas and vitamin D plays a major role in circadian rhythms and sleep. Vitamin D has a regulatory effect on immunity too. In human studies, supplementation greatly reduces inflammatory markers associated with depression.

Strategies To Overcome And Prevent Depression

Check for inflammation

Depression can be a devastating illness. For very severe depression, studies show that antidepressants appear to be rather helpful in alleviating symptoms. But if your depression is milder, antidepressants may only be just as good as placebos. Therefore, it is worthwhile to check your infection level by getting a blood test forC-reactive protein (CRP), which is made by the body in response to high levels of inflammatory cytokines.

Address stress

Depression is a sign that your body and your life are out of balance. Without you address your stress, it is difficult to return your life to balance. Both mindful meditation and cognitive therapy have been proven to be extremely helpful in combating depression.

Change your diet and lifestyle

  • Trade in the processed and sugary foods for an anti-inflammatory diet that consist of fatty fish like wild Alaskan salmon, leafy greens, fermented vegetables, cultured foods such as unsweetened yogurt and kefir, berries, garlic, and green tea.
  • Make sure you have at least 30 minutes of physical activity everyday.
  • Get a minimum 7-8 hours of quality sleep daily.

Take supplements to lower inflammation

  • High quality animal-based omega-3 fish oil (3 g daily if you have depression)
  • Vitamin D3 (5,000 IU daily) with vitamin K2 (for bone and heart health)
  • Probiotics (for gut health)
  • Curcumin (active component of turmeric)

Other supplements to lessen depressive symptoms

  • Vitamin B12 and folate (vitamin B9)

Studies found a link between deficiencies in these B vitamins and depression. Vitamin B12 is mainly found in animal proteins; hence, vegans are more susceptible to B12 deficiency. Folate is found in abundance in dark leafy greens and beans. If you have symptoms of depression and you know that you are not eating enough of these foods, you should consider incorporating them in your daily diet. If you are a vegan, you need to take a B12 supplement.

The following amino acid supplements should only be taken after consultation with a knowledgeable healthcare practitioner and a completed neurotransmitter test. For some individuals, these amino acids may help to alleviate the symptoms of depression by balancing the body's neurotransmitter levels. However, it is still critical to address the underlying causes of depression (as stated above).

  • 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) or L-tryptophan

L-tryptophan is first converted to 5-HTP, which is then converted to serotonin in the brain. Some people can not tolerate 5-HTP, they will have to use L-tryptophan instead. For those who have low serotonin levels and are either negative, obsessive, worried, irritable, sleepless, or have low self-esteem, 5-HTP and L-tryptophan have a positive effect on sleep, mood, anxiety, and carbohydrate cravings.

  • L-Tyrosine and DLPA (D, L-Phenylalanine)

For those who have low norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine, and have a flat-tired type of depression and crave stimulants like caffeine and sugar, L-tyrosine and DLPA will help you feel more energized, improve mood and drive, and increase mental focus .

  • GABA (Gamma amino-butyric acid)

For those who feel wired, stressed, and overwhelmed, GABA will help with anxiety and stress, reduce excess stimulation, and improve sleep.


Source by Carol Chuang

How to Increase Traffic Podcast Marketing

MattSowardsUncategorizedLeave a Comment

Submit to the podcast directories and you're guaranteed to generate more listings in the search engines in their own right, sometimes in minutes! Which in turn creates more quality back-links to help you obtain better organic listings for your blog which leads to an increase in traffic .

If you can write an article then you can create a podcast, if fact why not create and audible version of your best content, purchase a USB Mic or even use your own in built in microphone with your laptop, press record and read aloud. If you are genuinely interested and passionate about your subject, aims, goals and aspirations then this will show in your voice, along with your content this passion will be potentially very attractive to your target audience.

I want you to begin by installing the WordPress plugin 'podPress' this will enable you to set a player within you blog giving your visitors access to your audio content, not only this but it will allow you to set up an iTunes feed URL allowing you to hit the big-time and get distributed through Apples mighty iTunes store, you can do this from right within the settings in WordPress, when you're ready it plugs you straight into the stores directory via the iTunes application. The plugin also allows you to create a standard RSS feed URL for distribution to other directories too.

The next piece of software I recommend is Audacity on a PC or if you're on a Mac you could quite as easily use Garage Band which has the ability to produce podcasts … You can use royalty free music or the Apple Loops built into the software, creating jingles as an intro, a transition between topics and as closing music to your podcast.

A Basic format would be as follows:

• Show opening using royalty free music or better the built in Apple loops in Garage Band

• Your introduction a bit about yourself what you do and your goals for your listeners

• Headline and deliver your topic, try and stick to no more than 5 mins.

• Follow up with multiple topics if you're so inclined. Again all no more than 5 mins.

• Enter your closing remarks.

• Close with your music jingle … same as opening jingle.

I'd love to go into even more detail on how to properly record, mix and edit your podcast here but I'm limited to time suffice to say I'll go into a lot more detail in person or by email you can find details below. Or maybe there's another article on this topic. You really have to podcast to increase traffic you will not be disappointed.


Source by Martyn Haskins

Pros and Cons Of Various Types Of Barriers

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A head on crash is very severe when compared to other types of highway crashes. It takes just a few seconds for vehicles moving at highway speed to cross the median and collide with the vehicles from the other side of the lane. Median barriers are effective in separating the opposing traffic streams of a road physically. It also helps to stop vehicles moving into the route lane accidentally and to avoid pedestrians crossing the road at risky places. In 2006 there were 821 median cross over accidents that triggered in fatalities on US National highway system alone.

The factors that influence the selection of a barrier system are the type of the vehicles involved, roadway geometry and the potential severity of any head on crash incident. In most locations a standard barrier capable of redirecting the vehicles to the right area would suffice. However, in locations with complex geometry, adverse environmental conditions, heavy truck traffic and high traffic volumes and speeds, a barrier with high performance is necessary.

There are basically three categories of median barriers. They are detailed below,

Rigid barriers

The most common type of the median barrier in use today is the concrete barriers.

Pros:

– They are widely used because of their maintenance free characteristics, low life cycle cost and safety performance.
– They are very effective in avoiding vehicle crossover collision on accident pre regions with high traffic volumes and speed.
– They can also be used in areas where the required medium widths to install other types of barriers is not available.

– Jersey barrier is a modular concrete barrier that allows the vehicles to collide on its lower slopped face, pivoting it back in its original direction.
Cons:

– Comparatively the installation cost of rigid barriers is high.

Semi rigid barriers

It is otherwise called as guardrail or guiderail. These rails are made of metals and they are grouped in segments supported by posts or blocks.

Pros:

– Unlike rigid barriers, semi rigid barriers are designed to absorb more energy from the impact and the entire assembly move or deflect during the crash. Here, less damage to the vehicle.
– Installation cost is less.

Cons:

– They are only suitable in the areas that are not sloppy and have good soil condition.
– The cost of the repair following an impact is high.

Cable barriers

Typically it consist of multiple cables that are connected to each other in a series of posts.

Pros:

– It is the most versatile and forgiving barrier system in minimizing the median crossover crashes. This absorbs most of the energy of the impact and reduces the forces carried on the vehicles and its occupants.

Cons:

– Considerable time and cost must be spent maintaining, endangering motorists and workers during each repair.

The other factors that are considered before dismantling the barrier type are road alignment, crash history and the number of lanes.


Source by Robert Lawson

Dry Penis – Major Causes, Symptoms and Best Treatment

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Many men, of all ages, experience dry penis skin at some stage in their life, especially on the shaft and head of their penis. In fact, when dry penis skin presents itself, most men immediately believe the worst – they have contracted a STD or other illness from their partner or lover. This can, in many cases, lead to sexual anxiety between couples, with the condition becoming worse. It can also have an adverse affect on the sufferer's self-confidence and sexual habits, as well as their sex life.

However, this need not be the case. In most instances, dry penis skin is directly related to how the skin of the penis is treated and cared for, especially before, during, and after sexual intervention and masturbation.

Now, before moving on, it is important to clarify that there are many common and simply rented conditions for dry penile skin. These conditions can be rectified over time and will not cause the sufferer any long term damage. In fact, once the cause is found many dry penile skin conditions will clear up and allow the sufferer to enjoy a happy and fulfilling sex life, as they once did. Therefore, rather than letting dry penis skin become a problem, let's look at some of the common causes, symptoms, and treatments of this condition.

Dry Penis Skin Causes

The most common cause of dry skin on the penis or a dry penis head is lack of care when masturbating or having sexual intercourse. The penis is delicate; its skin is softer than any other skin on the body and it has many nerve endings and capillaries. All of which make sex that much more pleasurable. Therefore, rubbing the penis against clothing, not using adequate lubrication when masturbating or having anal or vaginal sex, and coming into contact with genital stubble, can cause penile skin to dry and become flaky.

Other typical causes of dry penis skin include: allergies, dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema, and candida. On rare occasions, a STD may be liable for making the penis skin dry, but usually other symptoms will become apparent.

Dry Penis Skin Symptoms

Dry penile skin may appear on the penis head and shaft after rough sexual activity. In addition, red patches and cracks may even become visible on the skin and the penis may be painful to touch.

Allergies, dermatitis, psoriasis, and eczema share similar symptoms, such as dry patches on penis that may be flaky and itchy. On occasions, the penal may feel as though it is hot and burning with visible pollution. The skin may also crack and weep, and be itchy.

Apart from making the penis skin dry, candida causes the penis to become red, inflamed and itchy. In fact, the itch is so insatiable that it will be hard to ignore. A discharge from the eye of the penal may also be noted.

Typically STDs have many other symptoms that make them stand out from common causes of dry penile skin. These include blisters, bumps, sores, unusual colored discharge from the eye of the penis, and an incompetent odor and pain when urinating.

Dry Penis Skin Treatment

All of the penis skin conditions stated are treatable, though it will take time for the penis to heal and repair itself. This is why it is recommended to abstain from any sexual activity until the dry penile skin disappears. If it is suspected that rough sexual activity has made the penis skin dry then it is suggested that a penal specific creme, (health professionals recommend Man1 Man Oil), is used daily. This type of product protects the skin of the penis from damage, as it adequately moisturizes the skin and feeds the cells with vital nutrients that keep it optimal condition at all times.

If, after a week, no noticeable change in the condition of dry penis skin has been seen, or the symptoms indicate that more than rough sexual activity is making the penis skin dry, then it is recommended that medical advice be bought.


Source by John Dugan

Glomerulonephritis: How to Diagnose and Prevent It at Various Levels

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Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidney. The glomeruli is constellation of small blood vessels in the kidney that act as a filter to remove excess fluid, electrolytes and nitrogenous wastes from the blood into the urine.

It is divided into:

Acute Glomerulonephritis- The symptoms develop suddenly.

Chronic Glomerulonephritis- The symptoms develop gradually.

In glomerulonephritis, the glomeruli lose their filtering capacity so blood proteins and red cells are excreted in the urine in various quantities depending on the severity of the glomerular damage.

DIAGNOSIS OF GLOMERULONEPHRITIS
Accurate diagnosis is essential in the successful treatment of glomerulonephritis.

Diagnosis is highly dependent on the clarity of symptoms, examination and investigation findings.

SYMPTOMS
· Passage of coca-colored urine due to the presence of red blood cells in the urine. This is called haematuria.

· Passage of foamy urine due to excess amount of proteins in the urine. This is called proteinuria.

· Presence of peri-orbital and ankle swelling.

EXAMINATION FINDINGS
· Peri-orbital and pedal edema.

· Elevated blood pressure.

INVESTIGATIONS
· Urinalysis-This reveals diagnostic findings such as red blood cells, casts, white blood cells and proteins in the urine.

· Blood test- Blood level of electrolytes, urea and creatinine. This is mainly done to assess the amount of kidney damage.

· Radiological imaging tests-This is done usually when the blood tests suggest some level of kidney damage. Eg Renal scan or abdominal CT scan is done.

Kidney biopsy- This entailing using a clinical procedure to extract some pieces of kidney tissues for microscopic examination. This is the only test that confirms glomerulonephritis.

TREATMENT
This is based on the following principals:

· Treat under health health conditions quickly.

· Use of corticosteroids to reduce the degree of inflammation and immunological responses.

· Dialysis- This is used for individuals with acute kidney injury or kidney failure.

· Anti-hypertensives such as ACEI, ARBs- This is used to control hypertension in some selected individuals.

PREVENTION STRATEGIES
There are 3 levels of prevention normally: primary, secondary and tertiary.

PRIMARY PREVENTION
The aim of this is to prevent the onset of glomerulonephritis.

It follows the following

· Throat swab should be done for suspected bacterium cause of sore throat. If streptococcus is suspected, oral penicillin should be preceded as soon as possible.

· Prompt treatment of individuals with bacteria endocarditis.

SECONDARY PREVENTION
This involves early diagnosis and prompt treatment of glomerulonephritis.

It specifically entails the following:

· Routine urinalysis to be done periodically for individuals at risk of streptococci infections and for individuals greater than 40 years.

· Periodic monitoring of blood urea and creatinine levels should be done for individuals with compromised kidney function.

TERTIARY PREVENTION
This involves activities and interventions put in place for individuals with glomerulonephritis from developing complications such as kidney failure and to reduce the disease progression.

· Optimal control of co-morbidities like hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

· Reduce intake of high protein diet.

· Restrict salt intake.

· Cessation of smoking.

· Regular clinic follow up by a Nephrologist.

Finally, glomerulonephritis is a very lethal kidney disease of which the onset and progress can be preceded if an individual adheres to the activities in the various levels of prevention highlighted above.


Source by Christopher Ugo Oseh

Band Management Basics For Musicians

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Someone once said that leading a group of people is like herding cats. In my experience, managing a band is like herding a thousand rabid and delirious cats. One has to worry about finances, promoting the band, showing shows, and managing the relationships between members. And that's all before you consider the extra responsibilities of musicianship when the manager is ALSO a contributing member of the band.

Financial management is something that most indie bands forget about, yet it's probably the single most important skill to have. Everything revolves around money; merchandise, payment from gigs, recording, etc. Having the right person to handle the money, even if it is not the main "band manager", is paramount to the band's long-term success. It would be a huge inconvenience to travel to an away gig and need to make an emergency purchase, only to find out the the band's bank account is overdrawn! Even if you are not great with numbers, but are still handling the money, there are countless software tools out there to help you keep track of purchases and income for the band.

Many bands simply promote shows as they come up, but an effective band manager will have a long-term and short-term plan of action for promotional purposes. This may mean scheduling interviews with radio stations or magazines, organizing giveaways for fans, or coming up with printed material and demo CDS to distribute ahead of shows in new markets to build up a fanbase. With the advent of the internet, Twitter, and Facebook, promotional tasks are significantly easier, but there are a LOT more bands promoting in the method. It's imperative that your promotional material be fresh and unique so that it will stand out from the crowd.

Booking shows can be an easy and rewarding tasks, or something that is done only because you absolutely must. The key to making it easy is effective contact management. Many contact management programs also will let you search geographically, making booking gigs really easy since you can "search nearby". Another thing to Incorporate is a simple booking agreement. Booking agreements protect you from sleazy establishments that may try to not pay or double-book performers (both of which have personally happened to me). It gives you a defined agreement that is enforceable by law if things go awry.

Bands will always have internal drama, whether it's someone's lack of self-practice or that thing that someone said to someone else. It's a manager's job to keep everyone happy enough to not quit, but it's also NOT his job to be a parent. Sometimes, you have to let some things play themselves out. However, if a situation appears to be affecting the well-being of the band as a whole, it's time to step in and take control, doing whatever you need to do to rectify the situation. Just take care and use caution not to implicitely take sides; simply act as a mediator. The reason is that you want to build people's trust in you to solve problems and not be a bad guy (even if you took their side).

A self-managed band can be a great thing if lead by the right band member. However, it's important to remember that your first priority is writing great music. When the management tasks start to interfere with that, it's time to start looking around for a real manager to begin the process of shopping for a major label deal!


Source by Christopher W. Smith

The 3 Types of Music Producers

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The professional title of producer is one of the most commonly misused titles in the music industry. This article will cover the three different types of music producers as well as the roles that they play within the music industry and inside the recording studio.

What A Producer Is not

A producer is not a musician that makes his or her own music. The proper title for this position would be a musician, plain and simple. Producers also tend to work with a team of recording professionals, industry executives and reliable musicians to complete a recording project. Because the skills involved in managing a recording project take time to learn and are very demanding, someone who works on their own to create music is not typically considered a producer. The title of producer is often wrongfully associated with the roles of songwriters and general musicians.

Executive Producer

An executive producer is generally the person that funds the recording project. Executive producers also extremely determine the direction of the recording project and carefully maintain the relationship between the artists or bands involved in the project and the record label that oversees the completion of the project. Executive producers essentially maintain the bridge between the record label and the recording artists as well as make sure that the project makes sense financially from a business perspective and a creative perspective.

Music Producer

A music producer typically spends a major of their time creating or arranging music for the recording project. Music producers usually have a strong background in music theory and occasionally have degrees in music theory or music composition from established universities and colleges. Another job of the music producer is to make sure that the music within the recording project is of the highest possible quality and that the musicians involved in the project are making the best music they possibly can. Sometimes music producers are also given the task of maintaining communication between the artists and the record label executives, which is often a task that is more difficult than a lot of people within the music industry realize.

Engineering Producer

The engineering producer understands the technical aspects of the recording studio more than the other two types of producers. Engineering producers know how to work the recording console, setup the microphones for recording, use the recording software efficiently and effectively, and keep the recording project organized. A lot of engineering producers start out as either mixing engineers or assistant engineers to record label producers. They also tend to understand the technical aspects of recording and what it takes to make the music sound great from an engineer's perspective.


Source by Jon Gregio

Rectification Of Accounting Errors

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Accountants prepare trial balance to check the correctness of accounts. If total of debit balances does not agree with the total of credit balances, it is a clear-cut indication that certain errors have been committed while recording the transactions in the books of original entry or subsidiary books. It is our ut duty to locate these errors and rectify them, only then we should proceed for preparing final accounts. We also know that all types of errors are not disclosed by trial balance as some of the errors do not effect the total of trial balance. So these can not be located with the help of trial balance. An accountant should invest his energy to locate both types of errors and rectify them before preparing trading, profit and loss account and balance sheet. Because if these are prepared before rectification these will not give us the correct result and profit and loss disclosed by them, it will not be the actual profit or loss.

All errors of accounting procedure can be classified as follows:

1. Errors of Principle

When a transaction is recorded against the fundamental principles of accounting, it is an error of principle. For example, if revenue expenditure is treated as capital expenditure or vice versa.

2. Clerical Errors

These errors can again be sub-divided as follows:

(i) Errors of omission

When a transaction is either wholly or partly not recorded in the books, it is an error of omission. It may be with regard to omission to enter a transaction in the books of original entry or with regard to omission to post a transaction from the books of original entry to the account concerned in the ledger.

(ii) Errors of commission

When an entry is incorrectly recorded either wholly or partly-incorrect posting, calculation, casting or balancing. Some of the errors of commission effect the trial balance whereas others do not. Errors effecting the trial balance can be revealed by preparing a trial balance.

(iii) Compensating errors

Sometimes an error is counter-balanced by another error in such a way that it is not disclosed by the trial balance. Such errors are called compensating errors.

From the point of view of rectification of the errors, these can be divided into two groups:

(a) Errors affecting one account only, and

(b) Errors affecting two or more accounts.

Errors affecting one account

Errors which affect can be:

(a) Casting errors;

(b) error of posting;

(c) carry forward;

(d) balancing; and

(e) omission from trial balance.

Such errors should, first of all, be located and rectified. These are rectified either with the help of journal entry or by giving an explanatory note in the account concerned.

Rectification

Stages of correction of accounting errors

All types of errors in accounts can be rectified at two stages:

(i) before the preparation of the final accounts; and

(ii) after the preparation of final accounts.

Errors rectified within the accounting period

The proper method of correction of an error is to pass journal entry in such a way that it corrects the mistake that has been committed and also gives effect to the entry that should have been passed. But while errors are being rectified before the preparation of final accounts, in certain cases the correction can not be done with the help of journal entry because the errors have been such. Normally, the procedure of rectification, if being done, before the preparation of final accounts is as follows:

(a) Correction of errors affecting one side of one account Such errors do not let the trial balance agree as they effect only one side of one account so these can not be corrected with the help of journal entry, if correction is required before the preparation of final accounts. So required amount is put on debit or credit side of the concerned account, as the case maybe. For example:

(i) Sales book under cast by Rs. 500 in the month of January. The error is only in sales account, in order to correct the sales account, we should record on the credit side of sales account 'By under casting of. sales book for the month of January Rs. 500 ".I'Explanation: As sales book was under cast by Rs. 500, it means all accounts other than sales account are correct, only credit balance of sales account is less by Rs. 500. So Rs. 500 have been credited in sales account.

(ii) Discount allowed to Marshall Rs. 50, not posted to discount account. It means that the amount of Rs. 50 which should have been debited in discount account has not been debited, so the debit side of discount account has been reduced by the same amount. We should debrief Rs. 50 in discount account now, which was previously omitted and the discount account will be corrected.

(iil) Goods sold to X wrongly debited in sales account. This error is effecting only sales account as the amount which should have been posted on the credit side has been wrongly placed on debit side of the same account. For rectifying it, we should put double the amount of transaction on the credit side of sales account by writing "By sales to X wrongly debited previously."

(iv) Amount of Rs. 500 paid to Y, not debited to his personal account. This error of effecting the personal account of Y only and its debit side is less by Rs. 500 because of omission to post the amount paid. We will now write on its debt side. "To cash (omitted to be posted) Rs.

Correction of errors affecting two sides of two or more accounts

As these errors affect two or more accounts, rectification of such errors, if being done before the preparation of final accounts can often be done with the help of a journal entry. While correcting these errors the amount is debited in one account / accounts whereas similar amount is credited to some other account / accounts.

Correction of errors in next accounting period

As stated earlier, that it is advisable to locate and rectify the errors before preparing the final accounts for the year. But in certain cases when after considerable search, the accountant fails to locate the errors and he is in a hurry to prepare the final accounts, of the business for filing the return for sales tax or income tax purposes, he transfers the amount of difference of trial balance to a newly opened 'Suspense Account'. In the next accounting period, as and when the errors are located these are corrected with reference to suspense account. When all the errors are discovered and rectified the suspense account will be closed automatically. We should not forget here that only those errors which effect the totals of trial balance can be corrected with the help of suspense account. Those errors which do not effect the trial balance can not be corrected with the help of suspense account. For example, if it is found that debit total of trial balance was less by Rs. 500 for the reason that Wilson's account was not debited with Rs. 500, the following rectifying entry is required to be passed.

Difference in trial balance

Trial balance is affected by only errors which are rectified with the help of the suspense account. Therefore, in order to calculate the difference in suspense account a table will be prepared. If the suspense account is debited in 'the rectification entry the amount will be put on the debit side of the table. On the other hand, if the suspense account is credited, the amount will be put on the credit side of the table. In the end, the balance is calculated and is reversed in the suspense account. If the credit side exceptions, the difference would be put on the debit side of the suspense account. Effect of Errors of Final Accounts

1. Errors effecting profit and loss account

It is important to note the effect that an en-or shall have on net profit of the firm. One point to remember here is that only those accounts which are transferred to trading and profit and loss account at the time of preparation of final accounts effect the net profit. It means that only mistakes in nominal accounts and goods account will effect the net profit. Error in the these accounts will either increase or decrease the net profit.

How the errors or their rectification effect the profit-following rules are helpful in understanding it:

(i) If because of an error a nominal account has been given some debit the profit will decrease or losses will increase, and when it is rectified the profits will increase and the losses will decrease. For example, machinery is overhauled for Rs. 10,000 but the amount debited to machinery repairs account -this error will reduce the profit. In rectifying entry the amount will be transferred to machinery account from machinery repairs account, and it will increase the profits.

(il) If because of an error the amount is omitted from recording on the debit side of a nominal account-it results in increase of profits or decrease in losses. The rectification of this error will have reverse effect, which means the profit will be reduced and losses will be increased. For example, rent paid to landlord but the amount has been debited to personal account of landlord-it will increase the profit as the expense on rent is reduced. When the error is rectified, we will post the necessary amount in rent account which will increase the expenditure on rent and so profits will be reduced.

(iil) Profit will increase or losses will decrease if a nominal account is wrongly credited. With the rectification of this error, the profits will decrease and losses will increase. For example, investments were sold and the amount was credited to sales account. This error will increase profits (or reduce losses) when the same error is rectified the amount will be transferred from sales account to investments account due to which sales will be reduced which will result in decrease in profits (or increase in losses).

(iv) Profit will decrease or losses will increase if an account is omitted from posting in the credit side of a nominal or goods account. When the same will be rectified it will increase the profit or reduce the losses. For example, commission received is omitted to be posted to the credit of commission account. This error will decrease profits (or increase losses) as an income is not credited to profit and loss account. When the error will be rectified, it will have reverse effect on profit and loss as an additional income will be credited to profit and loss account so the profit will increase (or the losses will decrease). If due to any error the profit or losses are affected, it will have its effect on capital account also because profits are credited and losses are debited in the capital account and so the capital will also increase or decrease. As capital is shown on the liabilities side of balance sheet so any error in nominal account will effect balance sheet as well. So we can say that an error in nominal account or goods account effects profit and loss account as well as balance sheet.

2. Errors effecting balance sheet only

If an error is committed in a real or personal account, it will effect assets, liabilities, debtors or creditors of the firm and as a result it will have its impact on balance sheet alone. because these items are shown in balance sheet only and balance sheet is prepared after the profit and loss account has been prepared. So if there is any error in cash account, bank account, asset or liability account it will effect only balance sheet.


Source by Anil Kumar Gupta

How to Make and Produce an Audio Book

MattSowardsUncategorizedLeave a Comment

The framework for making and producing an audio book occurs in six stages: 1) creative; 2) technical; 3) legal; 4) production; 5) distribution and marketing; and, 6) Big Celebration.

Stage 1: Creative

There's more to this stage than pursuing the muse willy-nilly. It's important to pay attention to your logical self to stay organized. It's essential in order to communicate effectively with your audio engineer and any other professionals you'll be working with. Not to mention saving time, money, and sanity.

During the creative stage you are planning, establishing the content for the CD, recording, and later in the editing phase, swapping files with your audio engineer. After the initial recording, you'll be editing for clarity, complementeness, and cohesion.

So how do you go about finding an audio engineer? You can find such individuals through online research and personal networking. I found mine through an online friend. He was a joy to cooperate with because he was simpatico with my project. Because of his reputation, I knew that I could trust him.

I spent two days in my sound engineer's home studio in Nashville recording all the poems. After I returned home to St. Louis Louis, he sent MP3 files for my review and detailed response in order to complete his editing. In our project we were collaging 90 poems and hundreds of clips from songs, stories, and banter recorded in my father's parlor. He understood the nature and purpose of my project so completely that with minimal direction, he made excellent initial choices, but these still had to be refined.

During the file-swapping phase, you call upon your highly analytical, critical listening skills. You'll listen for quality of the audio, pause intervals, and finalizing the content. For example, in my project we listened specifically for pause intervals between the poems and the song, a story, or the banter between us that framed it. When you finish your review of the MP3 files, you send notes (like a play director) back to your audio engineer who takes care of the rest.

Tip: Make a map to organize your recording work. Before our group recorded in Pop's parlor, I wrote out the songs I associated with each of the book's five sections so we would not waste time. After the four mini disks were completed, I listened to them and cataloged their contents according to running time. This catalog became a handily coded roadmap that he and I could refer to. It saved lots of time during the session, and time, trouble – even money – as he moved deeeper into the editing process.

Tip: Practice before recording. Be present, alert, and open to your emotional response so that you can bring it into your reading. Think of your voice as instrument. Use inflection, pacing, and pitch to sustain listener engagement.

Stage 2: Technical

During the technical stage the audio engineer masters the disc, and you decide how the discs will span. This means, where will the tracks and the CDs themselves break if you are making more than one disc. In our project there were four discs, so this step was critical. Your engineer sends you the first complete work in CD format-your hard copy. You send back comments, including any technical glitches to clean up.

Stage 3: Legal

From this stage onward, the key word is "business." You've established the content and done what most of us would consider the fun part. Now it's all straight-ahead work.

A new term I learned during this phase was "mechanical licensing." Basically it's permission to use copyrighted musical materials that are being replicated for sale in recorded format. It ensures that artists receive the royalties that they are due for creating their original works. As a creative person yourself, you can appreciate how important it is. This step also curtails your legal exposure so you will not get sued.

So, with that definition under out belts, the first legal step is to secure mechanical licenses for any songs you did not compose yourself.

If you are recording original material you composed yourself, then it makes good sense to get it copyrighted. It also makes good sense to copyright the completed product to protect your ent work.

Royalties are computed on an elaborate proportion of number of uses per CD and number of CDs. The mechanical licensing for our project to make 1,000 copies cost around $ 1,000, roughly $ 1 per audio book package with the four CDs. We also copyrighted seven original songs. I hired a specialist to do this work, and it sure paid off in hassle and money.

As you can see there are myriad details to take care of during this stage. You might want to design a project manager. I did not want to do this myself, so my sound engineer also became my point person to guide us through the business matters. He gave me great advice through.

Stage 4: Production

At this point, you choose a company to physically produce your project. Production includes pressing and replicating the disks, making the insert, and packaging the entire product. You have to choose what services you want from among the various ones the company offers. For example, will you produce the artwork yourself or will they? How many copies do you want? In my case we chose a production company through online comparison shopping and decided to make 1,000 copies. That sounds like a lot, but 1,000 copies was where the price per copy started to make sense. Also, if you do another production run, the law require you to renew and redo all the mechanical licenses. Ack!

Stage 5: Distribution and Marketing

How do you do this will depend on many factors such as the strength of your existing marketing platform and your available resources. You'll price the product at this point. A minimum rule of thumb is to double the basic cost invested.

If you are doing it yourself, make a marketing and distribution plan just as you would for a self-published book. The plan helps you determine your audience and figure out the most effective channels for reaching these people.

For instance you can market the audio book from your website, but to sell it off Amazon. That way Amazon is responsible for fulfillment-taking the orders, packing the product, and sending it out.

Stage 6: Big Celebration

After all the work and months of waiting your product took, make sure you have some kind of party to celebrate the completion.


Source by Janet Grace Riehl

What Is Digital Marketing and How to Use It

MattSowardsUncategorizedLeave a Comment

You will have to devote lots of time marketing yourself and earning referrals. Content marketing then will be more prone towards user-generated, instead of professional, content within the next calendar year. The secret to content marketing is that the content has to be interesting to your audience and will supply value to them.

There are a number of reasons to put money into influencer advertising. It is a way to get past the need to use ads to reach your audience. Although email promotion is highly effective, not all startups can harness the real power of email marketing.

Digital marketing is not rocket science. It has no boundaries. Since you may see, digital promotion is a big and complicated topic. Digital Marketing is a huge subject and you can not turn into a hero in 30 hours! It is a type of marketing technique where the marketing activity is carried out with the help of channels and platforms available on the internet. It uses the internet as a main promotional medium, in addition to traditional TV and radio.

It is one of the fastest growing industries so there is much room for growth and development. It is one of the top 5 growing sectors since the year 2009. In simple terms, it is the promotion of products, services or brands via digital marketing channels. It is much more advanced than the traditional style of marketing because, One has to be very careful in selecting the right strategy to generate reach.

Getting your own digital advertising and marketing blog is able to help you set yourself apart from others in the business and stand out when you should speak to an influencer or potential employer. The ideal marketing influencers are individuals who speak and reveal themselves in front of individuals.

Your email marketing strategy will vary a lot based on the essence of your small business. Needless to say, there are a number of different reasons your data-driven advertising and marketing strategy could fail in addition to a deficiency of comprehensive tools. It's simple to separate your digital advertising strategy into various channels like pay per click ads, social networking, search engine optimization and so forth. A digital marketing and advertising strategy does not require demand a detailed analysis, it purely takes a set of objectives and goals which you are seeking to realize. You should develop a content marketing strategy based not just on the info you need to give your clients, but also based on your understanding of what information people are trying to find.

Your digital marketing and advertising strategy may incorporate elements of all 3 channels, all working together to assist you achieve your objective. An intelligent and powerful digital marketing and advertising strategy has many faces. Then you'll have a fully integrated digital marketing and advertising strategy.

Developing a digital marketing and advertising strategy does not need to be hard work. Based on the scale of your organization, your digital marketing strategy might involve a number of objectives, but coming back to this easy way of thinking about strategy will be able to help you stay focused on meeting those objectives. It needs to deliver the right content based on their buying stage. A clearly defined digital marketing and advertising strategy encourages existing customers together with new customers to engage and stay loyal.

You need to construct a marketing system which focuses on a group or groups of individuals. The key issue is to develop your promotion system with the most suitable expectations. Fortunately, marketing software has come a very long way in the past few decades, and there are a lot of tools which may help. Ask yourself these questions before you pick any new marketing and advertising tool. You are going to learn how to use the digital instruments and techniques effectively for a prosperous campaign. In other words, it's because digital instruments and skills have an established capacity to create revenue, and companies wish to harness that power and keep competitive.

Using digital radiography has rapidly increased in recent decades. You could also take advantage of sophisticated email marketing software to run targeted campaigns with an objective of convincing your audience to have a particular action such as signing up for a class, buying your goods, attending an event, or in any case may be. It explains using email marketing, online affiliate marketing, Facebook marketing, and the way to use social networking tools like Twitter, podcasting and blogging.


Source by Rosario Berry