The Purpose of Control Accounts

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The reasons for having control accounts are as follows:

1. Check on the accuracy

They provide a check on the accuracy of entries made in the personal accounts in the sales ledger and purchase ledger. It is very easy to make a mistake in posting entries, because there might be hundreds of entries to make. Figures might get transposed. Some entries may be omitted altogether, so that an invoice or a payment transaction does not appear in a personal account as it should. By comparing:

o The total balance on the debtors account with the total of individual balances on the personal accounts in the sales ledger.

o The total balance on the creditors account with the total of individual balances on the personal accounts in the purchase ledger.

It is possible to identify the fact that errors have been made.

2. Location of errors

It could also assist in the location of errors, where posting to the control accounts are made daily or weekly, or even monthly. If a clerk fails to record an invoice or a payment in a personal account, or makes a transaction error, it would be a formidable task to locate the error or errors at the end of a year, say, given the hundred or thousands of transactions during the year.

By using the control account, a comparison with the individual balances in the sales or purchase ledger can be made for every week or day of the month, and the error found much more quickly than if accounts did not exist.

3. For internal check

Where there is a separate of clerical bookkeeping duties, the control account provides an internal check. The person posting entries to the accounts will act as a check on a different person who job it to post entries to the sales and purchase ledger accounts.

4. More simply and quickly

To provide debtors and creditors balances more quickly for producing a trial balance or balance sheet. A single balance on a control account is obviously expected simpler and quickly than many individual balances in the sales or purchase ledger.

This means also that the number of accounts in the double entry bookkeeping system can be kept down to a manageable size, since the personal accounts are memorandum accounts only and the control accounts instead provide the accounts required for a double entry system.


Source by Randika Lalith Abeyinghe

The Pros and Cons Of Radiofrequency Treatment For Chronic Back Pain

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Radiofrequency neurotomy, also called radiofrequency ablation or lesioning, is a procedure that intentionally injures nerves to prevent pain signals from being sent to and processed by the brain. It is a minimally invasive surgical procedure reserved for those with chronic pain who have not found relief from more conservative treatment methods.

Radiofrequency treatments can be used on patients with pain from a degenerative disc, facet joint or sacroiliac (SI) joint. Guided by fluoroscopy, an electrode is inserted into the body and placed on the targeted nerve. Once positioned properly, the electrode is heated to create a lesion on the nerve. A more recent, advanced form of the procedure includes a cooling phase; This increases the area of ​​the electrode's impact and may be useful in certain locations of the body.

This treatment is not a permanent solution; over time, nerves heal and pain returns. It is important to remember that radiofrequency is a treatment that addresses the symptom of pain, not the initial cause thereof. Review the following pros and cons before deciding whether to receive this procedure.

Pros

For people who can not perform day-to-day activities or work due to pain, a procedure like radiofrequency neurotomy can be tremendously positive. If effective, the procedure may allow people to return to work and perform basic daily activities like walking without excessive pain.

Results from radiofrequency treatment can last up to a year or two, which may make it more appealing than steroid injections, another common treatment for back and SI joint pain.

Neurotomy is a less invasive procedure than other surgical methods of eliminating joint and disc pain, particularly fusion surgery. Fusion creates a rigid segment between vertebrae or the pelvic bone and sacrum to inhibit painful motion from instability. The procedure comes with a high price tag and a host of risks, including accelerated degeneration of facet joints and spinal discs near the fused joint. Radiofrequency lesioning may provide sufficient pain relief to avoid more invasive surgery.

Research indicates that this procedure is helpful to some degree for around 70% of those who receive it and that it may decrease reliance on expensive and dangerous pain medications. See http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/studies-published-in-pain-medicine-demonstrate-effectiveness-of-minimally-invasive-cooled-radiofrequency-treatment-for-low-back-pain-194185701 .html for a collection of research supporting the use of cooled radiofrequency for discogenic and SI joint pain.

Cons

Radiofrequency lesioning makes pain worse before making it better. The initial week following the procedure can be difficult due to local soreness and swelling. Some patients who have received the treatment report that it can take a month or two to feel any positive effects.

Some patients receiving the treatment never experience relief. Some may even experience more pain if the procedure was done incorrectly and the targeted nerve was incompletely damaged; this would cause it to increase its pain signal output. See http://www.spine-health.com/forum/treatment/pain-management/rf-neurotomy-ablation-has-worked-you-how-long-did-it-take-notice-res to read reviews of the procedure from a number of people who have received it.

It must be remembered that this treatment is not a cure; it just masks the pain. Whatever your pain is caused by a degenerated disc, facet joint or SI joint, it is important to continue efforts to resolve the undering issue. Research alternative medicine to find treatment options you may not be aware of. Take advantage of your pain-free or reduced pain time post-radiofrequency treatment to follow through on exercise therapy, strengthening your core muscles that support joints and spinal discs.

Radiofrequency neurotomy may be a suitable treatment for you if pain is interfering with your quality of life. The focus of any chronic pain treatment plan, however, should be to address the cause of pain and not just mask the symptom.


Source by Amee LaTour

Music Theory – How To Understand It

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Most musicians learn "by ear" which basically means that they are hopefully good observers and imitators, remembering where that note was and so on! Hey, a good memory helps. Many great musicians have learned this way; the great Duke Ellington stated a basic truth about music: "If it sounds good it IS good." Rumor has it that many of the great Jazz and blues musicians only had a rudimentary knowledge of music theory despite what they performed was excellent music. Many could not read music but most had the "musical instincts" or a good "ear".

The Gypsies of Europe are often spoken of as "natural musicians" as opposed to those who have formal musical training in music theory. Some would argue in a negative way that the proclivity to musicianship is only due to the inordinate amount of time they have to practice, developing good observation skills and memory.

I personally learned to play the guitar the Spanish way which involves the use of solfeggio or the Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, etc. etc. We can thank the Italians for inventing this method which can give a sound to the eight-note musical scale used in the Western world. This Major scale is a short version of the complete musical scale or Chromatic scale of the western world.

Pythagoras the Greek, some 2500 years ago discovered the "octave" distance or interval. He discovered a basic fact of sound or vibrations. We could simplify it this way .. As the speed of a vibration increases the sound becomes higher or the pitch increases. As the speed of a vibration decreases, the sound becomes lower. Scientifically, we can use the symbols vps., Vibrations per second.

Therefore, any sound vibration remaining constant is called a note. Now here is the important part: when we double the vibrations (vps), say 20 to 40, or 50 to 100, or 300 to 600 vps, we call these distances with the same term an octave. The sound of the distance between these vibrations are obviously going from lower to higher, they are overtheless an octave. Singing solfege the note "do" will sound similar but higher as as you go up the scale and reach the next "do"; the vibrations will be doubled in the second "do."

Pythagoras the Greek divided this distance into twelve equal parts, today we call this the longer scale or the chromatic scale. The word comes from the ancient Greek word for color or chromos and refers to the potential for flavor, variety or color that a song or melody may have. Although musicians initially know more about the shortened major scale, they are in fact always using the chromatic scale, especially when they are using sharp or flat notes. The description in solfeggio is this: Do, di re ri mi fa fi sol si la li ti do.

Although there are other ways of learning music, the singing of these musical sounds with a piano or say a guitar will help the musician train his "ear". Remember this, the distance from any note to another is an interval but the most important interval is the octave.

The more you know about music theory, the better you will be able to play. There are many excellent books with CDs or DVDs available at your local library or book store that can help you with this. The time that you invest in learning music theory will be time well spent as you hear your getting better.

May good music live on !!


Source by Albert Sotelo

Noise Cancelling Headphones – Stay Enclosed by Music Only

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When it comes to headphones the range and choice available can be quite daunting. Firstly there is the earpiece design: On Ear headphones, Over Ear headphones or In Ear headphones. Then there are the various types of technology features to choose from such as wireless headphones using either RF (Radio Frequency) or Bluetooth so send the sound from source to headphones. Another major technology is noise reducing or noise cancelling headphones which can be achieved in various ways. Just the act of using in ear headphones where the earpiece sits directly in the ear canal or over ear headphones which totally encases the ear will have the effect of reducing the external noise that the wearer can hear. This is often referred to as passive noise cancellation.

The alternative is so called active noise cancelling headphones. These use electronic circuitry to read the external noise and then produce an opposite noise wave that cancelling the background noise. This type of noise cancelling headphones can, according to some manufacturers, reduce background noise by up to 99% and therefore are really ideal in noisy environments like air, bus or train travel.

Active noise coughing headphones are also kinder to the ears because you do not have to crank up the volume to hear the music over and above the background noise and thus reduce the possibility of ear damage from too much volume

So once one has decided on the type of earpiece, the technology features that one wishes to have included the next major choices are around design, color and brand. The combinations of these three criteria are infinite.

There are a number of brands which are closely associated with headphones such as the traditional consumer electronics manufacturers like Sony, JVC and Panasonic. Then there are the new hip brands associated with the youth music markets such as Dr Dre, SMS Street headphones and SOUL by Ludacris headphones. Lastly there are a number of brands who are renowned within the wider music and recording market for their technological brilliance and are often the choice of professional musicians. Amongst these Beyerdynamic, Sennheiser and and Shure earphones and headphones are the most famous.

Shure earphones and Shure headphones are produced by an American company founded in 1925 which is renamed in the music industry for its award-winning Sound Isolating Earphones, mobile phone stereo headsets to Professional Studio and DJ headphones. All built on professional audio roots, Shure's consumer audio products are designed to take listening experiences of MP3 players, mobiles phones and sound systems to a higher level.


Source by John P Marks

How Does Natural Male Enhancement Work

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Nitric oxide plays a critical role in regulating your blood pressure, forbidding blood clots, combined with the dilating of blood vessels. Nitric oxide is employed extensively in a multitude of medical treatments. The all the rage product Viagra controls penile hardness by regulating your nitric oxide.

Initially, it was discovered that nitric oxide may induces severeness when injected in the central nervous system of rats. Not unexpectedly, human testing quickly advanced.

An effortless approach to find out how the process runs is to employ the model of a balloon. A balloon is limp if there is no air in it. However when you start to inflate the balloon incorporating a small amount of air, it gets elongated as well as rigid.

Men own a similar mechanism. However, rather than using pressurized air to be rigid, we apply pressurized blood. Blood is pressurized by using nitric oxide.

Simplistically, what occurs is that the brain becomes stimulated and sends out a signal for arousal. Nerve cells amid the corpora cavernosa debate bringing about nitric oxide. The nitric oxide in turn causes the production of a chemical that signals arteries to dilate. This dilation results with the flow of blood. The arteries expand and widen, which permits a greater amount of blood to flow. That flowing blood is like blowing air in the balloon. You ever begin to grow. In concert veins restrict to preclude blood from flowing out. It is consequently uncomplicated physics – more blood in and reduced out results in male enhancement – getting bigger as well as a hard member. This is a regular method in the human body. A multitude of valves open and close. When the artillery open up then there's an increased flow of blood.

Subsequently, to generate a male enhancement product you desire to craft something that increments flow of blood. There are different ways in order to do this.

You could increase the amount of nitric oxide that is created. You could increase the current amount of chemicals that are created as a result of having more nitric oxide. Or you can attack an enzyme that lowers the total quantity of that chemical – a back door path of gaining the chemical.

Unfortunately, nitric oxide is certainly not as easily obtained as air. Which is the reason diverse products may be available that either increase your nitric oxide or increase selected chemicals as if you had extra nitric oxide. The ultimate outcome may be increased stamina, a larger libido, and a larger size and overall volume. Thus, natural male enhancement.


Source by Maxx Johnson

Alcohol and Erectile Problems – How to Get Instant Erections

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If you love drinking alcohol, I have some bad news for you.

Alcohol and erectile problems go hand in hand. Alcohol can make you impotent and seriously ruin your relationship. In fact, a lot of young guys experience erectile dysfunction due to indulgence in drinking.

The Science

Blood flow to the penis, testosterone levels in your body and the state of your mental well being are some of the most important factors that play a vital role in making you achieve a harder and stiffer erection.

Sexual stimulation results in a complex reaction in your central nervous systems that passes impulses to the blood vessels to increase blood flow to the penis. Your heart begins pumping blood faster so that more blood is allowed into the penile region.

Now, alcohol can disrupt this entire process. While it can help you get over your inhibitions, it can also suppress your central nervous system. This can kill the entire process and your body does not properly signal the blood vessels to supply enough blood to the penis. Not just this, alcohol abuse over time can also result in nerve damage in the penal. This is often irreversible and can make you impotent for life.

There are studies which reveal that this kind of nerve damage can leave you impotent even when you are sober!

But this is not all!

Alcohol also increases the level of estrogen or the female hormone in your body. What it means is that testosterone or the male hormone levels dip. A drop in testosterone not only lowers your libido but also results in impaired erectile function.

So every glass of alcohol that you drink gets you a notch closer to erectile problems and the situation worsens over time.

Another effect of alcohol consumption is that it can increase body fat. This is closely related to an increase in estrogen levels. Estrogen is associated with fat accumulation and water retention in your body. No wonder, men who drink alcohol often have larger bellies and male breasts. Development of male breasts is a condition that is called Gynaecomastia and can be really embarrassing.

Alcohol is also responsible for making you feel depressed. Depression, nervousness and anxiety are some of the most basic psychological reasons behind erectile dysfunction in men. Such factors can make men a complete failure in bed. What makes things worse is that dealing with impotence or erectile dysfunction is not easy for men. It seems to put them under extreme stress which kind of worsens the situation resulting in a spiral like effect.

How to Get Over Alcohol Impotence

First and foremost, it is important to quit drinking. Now, this is not easy but it is not impossible either. If your are determined to enjoy better sex and also improve your overall health, you need to take concrete steps towards this. In such a case, it is important to seek a therapist's consultation.

However, if you are not too much into drinking, you can easily do it yourself by focusing on your goals.

Beside giving up alcohol, it is also important to learn some stress management techniques so that you can get over factors such as depression, stress and anxiety.

Over and above, there are some herbal solutions that can offer great help.

Certain herbs have been used as aphrodisiacs for thousands of years and can boost sexual function in men. Erection oils can be the best form of such herbal remedies specifically in cases when men find it difficult to get erections after having a couple of drinks. These oils are topical applications that get absorbed straight into the bloodstream when rubbed on the penis, result in almost immediate erections by rushing blood to the penis.

Check out the Best Erection Oil that can make you perform like a Porn Star in bed!


Source by Tim Bryant

The Real Healthy Chocolate News

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It would appear that the dream of a chocolate that is truly potent with health enhancing properties, has finally been realized, and is set to arrive in the UK shortly. It has been scientifically tested and verified by a variety of highly qualified bodies, to be genuine in all its claims. The company behind this revolutionary product, have patented a system of cold extraction of the cocoa solids and fats (cocoa and cocoa butter) from the cacao bean (chocolate's main ingredient).

This ingenious breakthrough allows the naturally high content of antioxidants to remain intact through the entire manufacturing process. Antioxidants serve to protect the body's cells from damage and slow down the aging process. Scientific research suggest a proportional link between the amount of antioxidants present and the length of the body's natural life. The traditional method of chocolate making requires heat and heat is the main destroyer of naturally occurring nutrients in vegetation. The powerful punch of the unadulterated cacao is further enhanced by the addition of the acai berry.

Found in the South American rainforest, this super food also boasts ultra high antioxidant levels. Combined, this impressive partnership delivers a force of antioxidants that until now, has never been seen in any product of its kind. These unpreceded antioxidant levels have been certified by Brunswick labs after confirming the ORAC score (oxygen radical absorption capacity) of the final product. Often, ORAC scores for products, are given, based on measurements taken at the beginning of, or during the manufacturing process and not at the end, by which time, much of the antioxidant content can be lost. The chocolate is also said to be rich in epecatechins, Scientists believe epecatechins are the future force in combating four out of the five major diseases: stroke, heart failure, cancer and diabetes.

As if the prior was not enough, It seems they have not compromised on standard as far as the remaining ingredients are concerned. The turbo charged chocolate, does not contain any waxy fillers, as is often found in regular chocolate products, there are no refined sugars present, no negative fats, no caffeine, it's non dairy and gluten free.

And the claims go on: It's low in cholesterol, low glycemic, diabetic friendly, suitable for vegetarians and vegans and is also Kosher certified, and probably most importantly to chocolate lovers, is heralded as tasting absolutely delicious.

This seemingly formidable, super chocolate has been haled 'Impressive' by a commissioned medical advisory board and further validated by The Clinical University of Utah.

The Nevada based, family owned, company is just 3 years old, but in that time they have used business and marketing expertise to develop a solid, debt-free business and a network marketing system that saw company growth of 300% in 2007. The company saw sales of 55 million last year and expect to reach 100 million this year. Their president says their target is to reach a billion in the not to distant future. This trend-setting product looks to have great marketability and its proven track record suggests it is set to take the UK market by storm.

The fact that it will not be available in any shops, and will be sold exclusively through networks, presents a good marketing opportunity for home business seekers and seasoned marketers alike. The timing is strangely fortunate, as chocolate is known to sit comfortably in the exclusive group of "Recession Proof" industries; in fact chocolate sales have been shown to be up in such times. Note; the company's sales were up by 40% in 2008.

With more innovative healthy-chocolate product lines set for future release, it is believed that individuals / marketers involving themselves with the product at this early stage, could stand to reap substantive rewards.

It looks like this company is single-handedly putting healthy chocolate well and really on the map.


Source by Lloyd Gordon

The American Alcohol Epidemic

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America has one of the highest drinking ages in the world at twenty-one. Our northern neighbors, Canada, draw the line at nineteen. On our southern border, Mexico draws the line at eighteen. The majority of European countries also draw the legal drinking line at eighteen. Does this mean Americans are too strict?

The American drinking age is set at twenty-one because alcohol can seriously stunt a teen's growth and development. Through research it has been found that at the age of twenty-one alcohol will no longer inhibit growth and development for the majority of bodies. This is why America holds the bar high.

A ramification of the high drinking age has caused a problem among youth. This is the problem of under-aged drinking. Because there is a "can not have" on alcohol, many American teens end up drinking too much to the point of passing out when they do drink. Binge drinking is common among children and young adults.

Decreasing the drinking age is not the answer to America's under-aged drinking problem. According to the Partnership at Drug Free.Org: Dramatic Differences Found in American and European Teenage Substance Use, European countries have alcohol abuse problems as well because their drinking age is lower than America's. Europe has more teens drinking alcohol in school than America does.

Binge Drinking

Over fifty percent of adults eighteen and over are current drinkers, meaning they have had at least twelve drinks in the past year. Over twelve percent of adults age eighteen and over are infrequent drinkers, meaning they had between one and eleven drinks in the past year. This means that the majority of Americans eighty and over are alcohol drinkers, according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Alcohol Use for the US

Binge drinking is when a person drinks so much alcohol that their body goes into shock and gets sick, vomiting uncontrollably, or blacks out. All of these symptoms are very dangerous as they could cause the body to shut down completely and die. Many binge drinkers visit the emergency room every year to get their stomachs pumped because they were binge drinking.

The number of alcohol-induced deaths in America, excluding alcohol-related deaths which included accidents and homicides, is 25,692. Many American towns have an entire population smaller than this number.

Liver Poisoning

Alcohol is damaging to the liver. The liver is the part of the body which filters harmful chemicals from the blood, and alcohol is definitely a harmful chemical. The more a person drinks, the less able the liver is to perform this function. Alcoholics who do not die from binge drinking or accidents tend to die in their mid-forties and fifties from alcohol poisoning.

Modern medicine has made it possible for most people to live to be a hundred or older. Alcohol poisoning is literally cutting a person's life span in half. A few drinks here and there may seem like a good idea, but consider this fact: preventable death is always one of the hardest subjects to change since it is cured by people making better choices.

Raising awareness on the subject of alcohol abuse is a positive way to reverse the American alcohol epidemic which is plaguing this country. Nobody needs to die from alcohol poisoning or liver damage. There is so much to live for in this world – do not let alcohol take it away.


Source by Daniel M Manson

Decoding The Depression Puzzle

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Are We Overusing Antidepressants?

Eleven percent of Americans over 12 years old take antidepressants, which is the second most commonly prescribed medication in the US, after cholesterol-lowering drugs. Many more women than men use them. About 21 percent of women aged 20 and over take them; some women aged 40-59, the rate is 25 percent.

Antidepressants are psychiatric medications used to treat mood disorders including depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The most widely used antidepressants are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a class of drugs that includes medicines such as Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, and Lexapro. Less used but a popular alternative to SSRIs are serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs); some of the commonly used medicines in this drug class include Effexor and Cymbalta.

With such a high preponderance of usage, some may wonder whether we have become a Prozac nation. Others question if these medications are handed out to patients too casually.

Who Is Prescribing Antidepressants?

In the US nearly 80 percent of antidepressant prescriptions are written by primary care physicians, not psychiatrists. Many depressed patients seen in general practice have not been thoroughly evaluated and may not even meet the full, formal criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Instead, they are given the medications for symptoms of mild depression, often caused by everyday stress, sadness, and sorrow, which may be alleviated by psychotherapy alone. Pediatric use for depression and anxiety has also skyrocketed but it peaked in 2004 when the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a black box warning for SSRIs due to evidence that they may be linked to increased risk of suicidal thinking, feeling, and behavior in young people.

Low Serotonin Levels Do not Necessarily Cause Depression

SSRIs and SNRIs were developed to treat depression and other mental health conditions caused by an imbalance of neurotransmitter chemicals, particularly serotonin and norepinephrine. This chemical imbalance theory purports that low levels of these chemicals in the brain cause depression. For over two decades, this theory continues to be the dominant paradigm for treating depression.

However, the chemical imbalance hypothesis has its problems and numerous scientific studies conducted in the last 20 years have examined it and restored it. They found that:

  • Not all depressed patients have low serotonin and norepinephrine levels.
  • In fact, some have abnormally high levels, while others with no history of depression have low levels of these chemicals.

The significance of this finding is huge, yet it is rarely publicized or taught in medical schools. There are probably various reasons for this but financial is likely to be one of them – antidepressants are a $ 10 billion industry!

Antidepressants Do not Always Work

If depression is not caused by an imbalance of serotonin and norepinephrine, then it will explain why antidepressants do not always work on people who have depression. Countless studies have been done to determine the effectiveness of these medicines.

A massive meta-study compiled by the US government that incorporated findings of over 100,000 research studies over a 15-year period concluded that:

  • Antidepressants are only effective in around one-third of cases, and partially effective in another third, and have no benefit at all in the remaining third.
  • High rate of relapse when depression is treated with drugs alone.
  • For many patients, the side effects are more unpleasant than the depression itself, so they discontinue usage.

Likewise, a number of double-blind, randomized controlled studies have come to similar conclusions. They found that:

  • The superiority of antidepressants over placebo is clinically significant only for patients who are very severely depressed.
  • For those with mild, moderate, and even severe depression, placebos work nearly as well as the medications.

Plus They Have Side Effects

Like most medications, antidepressants have side effects, including nausea, weight gain, loss of sexual desire, fatigue, insomnia, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, agitation, irritability, and anxiety.

They are not addictive to the same way substances like heroin or alcohol are, but people can still develop a physical dependence if they stop taking the drugs abruptly and may experience rather unsuccessful withdrawal symptoms such as:

  • Anxiety
  • Insomnia or vivid dreams
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Tiredness
  • Irritability
  • Flu-like symptoms, including achy muscles and chills
  • Nausea
  • Electric shock sensations
  • Return of depressive symptoms

Compelling Evidence: Inflammation As A Contributing Factor To Depression

There is a huge body of research connecting depression and inflammation. In one of the most comprehensive findings, a study in JAMA Psychiatry determined that brain inflammation was 30 percent higher in clinically depressed patients. The research team pointed out that previous studies have only looked at biomarkers of inflammation in the blood; This is the first to find definitive evidence in the brain.

Scientists have long known that infection is at the root of nearly every modern disease, including allergies, Alzheimer's, arthritis, asthma, autoimmune disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. So it is not a huge surprise that depression is also linked to inflammation.

Researchers found that people with clinical depression have elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers such as cytokines in the blood. Cytokines cruise through the bloodstream, damaging tissue, causing plaque buildup in the treaties, and sometimes even promoting the growth of tumors.

Cytokines can also travel to the brain, possibly through the vagus nerve which connects the gut and the brain. Specialized immune cells in the brain called microglia became activated in inflammatory states and they too, secure cytokines.

Neuroinflammation alters neurotransmitter pathways and brain circuits. In the early 1980s, researchers have already discovered that inflammatory cytokines produce a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological symptoms mirroring characteristically signs and symptoms of depression.

Known Causes Of Inflammation

If infection is a contributing factor to depression, it is critical to understand how we get inflammation in the first place. This correlation has the potential to suggest both therapeutic and preventive approaches to combating depression.

Stress and traumatic life events

Researchers reported that acute negative life events, chronic psychological trauma, and exposure to childhood trauma hugely increase the risk of developing clinical depression and mood symptoms. There is very strong evidence that different types of psychosocial stressors may stimulate the pro-inflammatory cytokine network in the brain.

Diet

There have been substantial changes to dietary patterns over the last 50 years. We have swapped a diet high in fiber, nutrient -ense foods, and omega-3 fats (all anti-inflammatory) to one that is high in refined carbohydrates, sugar, and unhealthy refined oils (all highly pro-inflammatory). Since 2009, there have been numerous studies reporting adverse associations between diet quality and common mental disorders in children and adults across cultures.

Exercise

Many studies found that exercise is an effective treatment strategy for depression. Regular exercise protects against the development of new depressive and anxiety disorders while physical inactivity during childhood is associated with an increased risk of depression in adulthood.

Obesity

Without doubt, obesity is an inflammatory state. Inflammatory cytokines are found in abundance in fat cells.

With the prevalence of obesity increasing to epidemic proportions, studies have demonstrated a close relationship between obesity and depression. Obesity predisposes one to depression, while depression also predisposes one to obesity. A recent meta-analysis found obesity to increase the risk of later depression by 55%, whereas depression increased the risk of developing obesity by 58%.

Gut permeability

Another diet-related cause of inflammation is gut permeability or "leaky gut". Under normal circumstances, immune cells are geographically separated from gram negative bacteria in the gut, which are part of the normal gut flora. However, if there is a loosing of the tight junction barrier in the gut wall, toxins produced by gram negative bacterium called lipopolysaccharides (LPS) may get into the bloodstream, causing immune cells to respond and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Since the gut and brain are connected by the vagus nerve, mental disorders are highly associated with gut permeability.

The most common causes of leaky gut are:

  • Food sensitivity, such as gluten (a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley) and dairy.
  • Chronic gut infections, such as parasites, Cryptosporidium, Clostridium difficile, Blastocystis hominis, and Helicobacter pylori.

Smoking

Cigarette smoke contains many thousands of chemicals, many of which induce inflammatory responses in the body and direct damage to cell tissues in the brain. Studies showed that smoking may increase one's susceptibility to developing depression.

Periodontal disease

Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease that involves infections of the structures around the teeth, which include the gum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Periodontal disease is associated with high levels of systemic inflammatory cytokines. It is a significant predictor of other inflammatory illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, and may also increase the risk of depression as well.

Sleep deprivation

Research has demonstrated that chronic sleep deprivation results in impairments in immune functioning, characterized by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is estimated that up to 80-90 percent of individuals who suffer from a major depressive disorder experience sleep disorders. Studies have suggested that sleep disturbances may also predispose individuals to consequent development of mood disorders.

Vitamin D

There is a high priority of vitamin D deficiency in developed countries. Low vitamin D is linked to many diseases including osteoporosis and cancer. Vitamin D receptors are present in key brain areas and vitamin D plays a major role in circadian rhythms and sleep. Vitamin D has a regulatory effect on immunity too. In human studies, supplementation greatly reduces inflammatory markers associated with depression.

Strategies To Overcome And Prevent Depression

Check for inflammation

Depression can be a devastating illness. For very severe depression, studies show that antidepressants appear to be rather helpful in alleviating symptoms. But if your depression is milder, antidepressants may only be just as good as placebos. Therefore, it is worthwhile to check your infection level by getting a blood test forC-reactive protein (CRP), which is made by the body in response to high levels of inflammatory cytokines.

Address stress

Depression is a sign that your body and your life are out of balance. Without you address your stress, it is difficult to return your life to balance. Both mindful meditation and cognitive therapy have been proven to be extremely helpful in combating depression.

Change your diet and lifestyle

  • Trade in the processed and sugary foods for an anti-inflammatory diet that consist of fatty fish like wild Alaskan salmon, leafy greens, fermented vegetables, cultured foods such as unsweetened yogurt and kefir, berries, garlic, and green tea.
  • Make sure you have at least 30 minutes of physical activity everyday.
  • Get a minimum 7-8 hours of quality sleep daily.

Take supplements to lower inflammation

  • High quality animal-based omega-3 fish oil (3 g daily if you have depression)
  • Vitamin D3 (5,000 IU daily) with vitamin K2 (for bone and heart health)
  • Probiotics (for gut health)
  • Curcumin (active component of turmeric)

Other supplements to lessen depressive symptoms

  • Vitamin B12 and folate (vitamin B9)

Studies found a link between deficiencies in these B vitamins and depression. Vitamin B12 is mainly found in animal proteins; hence, vegans are more susceptible to B12 deficiency. Folate is found in abundance in dark leafy greens and beans. If you have symptoms of depression and you know that you are not eating enough of these foods, you should consider incorporating them in your daily diet. If you are a vegan, you need to take a B12 supplement.

The following amino acid supplements should only be taken after consultation with a knowledgeable healthcare practitioner and a completed neurotransmitter test. For some individuals, these amino acids may help to alleviate the symptoms of depression by balancing the body's neurotransmitter levels. However, it is still critical to address the underlying causes of depression (as stated above).

  • 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) or L-tryptophan

L-tryptophan is first converted to 5-HTP, which is then converted to serotonin in the brain. Some people can not tolerate 5-HTP, they will have to use L-tryptophan instead. For those who have low serotonin levels and are either negative, obsessive, worried, irritable, sleepless, or have low self-esteem, 5-HTP and L-tryptophan have a positive effect on sleep, mood, anxiety, and carbohydrate cravings.

  • L-Tyrosine and DLPA (D, L-Phenylalanine)

For those who have low norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine, and have a flat-tired type of depression and crave stimulants like caffeine and sugar, L-tyrosine and DLPA will help you feel more energized, improve mood and drive, and increase mental focus .

  • GABA (Gamma amino-butyric acid)

For those who feel wired, stressed, and overwhelmed, GABA will help with anxiety and stress, reduce excess stimulation, and improve sleep.


Source by Carol Chuang

How to Increase Traffic Podcast Marketing

MattSowardsUncategorizedLeave a Comment

Submit to the podcast directories and you're guaranteed to generate more listings in the search engines in their own right, sometimes in minutes! Which in turn creates more quality back-links to help you obtain better organic listings for your blog which leads to an increase in traffic .

If you can write an article then you can create a podcast, if fact why not create and audible version of your best content, purchase a USB Mic or even use your own in built in microphone with your laptop, press record and read aloud. If you are genuinely interested and passionate about your subject, aims, goals and aspirations then this will show in your voice, along with your content this passion will be potentially very attractive to your target audience.

I want you to begin by installing the WordPress plugin 'podPress' this will enable you to set a player within you blog giving your visitors access to your audio content, not only this but it will allow you to set up an iTunes feed URL allowing you to hit the big-time and get distributed through Apples mighty iTunes store, you can do this from right within the settings in WordPress, when you're ready it plugs you straight into the stores directory via the iTunes application. The plugin also allows you to create a standard RSS feed URL for distribution to other directories too.

The next piece of software I recommend is Audacity on a PC or if you're on a Mac you could quite as easily use Garage Band which has the ability to produce podcasts … You can use royalty free music or the Apple Loops built into the software, creating jingles as an intro, a transition between topics and as closing music to your podcast.

A Basic format would be as follows:

• Show opening using royalty free music or better the built in Apple loops in Garage Band

• Your introduction a bit about yourself what you do and your goals for your listeners

• Headline and deliver your topic, try and stick to no more than 5 mins.

• Follow up with multiple topics if you're so inclined. Again all no more than 5 mins.

• Enter your closing remarks.

• Close with your music jingle … same as opening jingle.

I'd love to go into even more detail on how to properly record, mix and edit your podcast here but I'm limited to time suffice to say I'll go into a lot more detail in person or by email you can find details below. Or maybe there's another article on this topic. You really have to podcast to increase traffic you will not be disappointed.


Source by Martyn Haskins