What Is Switchgear and How Does It Work?

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Switchgear refers to electrical equipment that regulates the flow of electricity within an electrical system. It is used by utility providers and private facilities alike for two reasons: to prevent overloads and short circuits, and to de-energize circuits for testing and maintenance. The most familiar types of switchgear are circuit breakers and fuses, which interrupt the flow of electricity to a circuit when its current becomes too high; and power transfer switches, which transfer a buildings source of electricity from a primary source to a secondary source, such as accessing generator power during a power outage.

Basic Types of Switch Gear

Switchgear is initially categorized according to its interruption technology, the method by which it extinguishes its electrical arc. Using this categorization, there are five types of gear available on today's market: oil circuit breaks, which vaporize oil in order to send a jet of oil through an arc; gas (SF6) breaks, which stretch an arc and then rely on the SF6 to extinguish it; vacuum breaks, which extinguish their comparatively small arc by stretching it; air breaks, which typically use a puff of air to extinguish an arc; and hybrid breaks, which use more than one type of breaking technology to extinguish an arc, such as gas and air.

Additional Classifications that Affect Equipment Choice

Within the classifications above are sub classifications that also determine what type of gear is installed in certain facilities and how it is serviced. In addition to interruption technology, breakers have at least eight more classifications: interruption standard (make before break / break before make, circuit break, or isolation); voltage level (low, medium, or high); general construction type (industrial, utility, marine, etc.); insulating medium (air, gas, oil, etc.); method of operation (manual, motor, or stored energy); type of current (alternating or direct); application type (transmission or distribution); and purpose of operation (isolation, load break, or grounding).

The Importance of Generator Switch Gear Maintenance

Regardless of the type of breakers a facility employs, their proper maintenance is crucial to worker safety and the preservation of assets, as faulty electrical equipment is a common cause of fatal fires that destroy commercial facilities. Yet, special attention is often paid to maintaining generator switches due to their critical role in emergency power production, switching a facility's electricity source from commercial supply to generator supply in the event of an outage, and the back again when commercial supply resumes.

In many cases, facilities trust their switch maintenance to a provider of industrial power solutions that specializes in servicing emergency generators, both with routine maintenance and retrofitting, the latter when an older generator needs minor technology upgrades and not complete replacement. To learn more about which type of gear is right for your facility, contact a provider of industrial power solutions today.

Source by Mike Barone

Pros and Cons of Morning After Pills

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The use of morning after pill has both advantages and disadvantages associated with it. Here are a few pros and cons you need to be aware of:


1. It can be your last resort to avoid unwanted pregnancy.

2. If you are 17 years of age or over, you don't need a prescription to buy morning after pills. You can have it soon after having an unprotected sex.

3. By consuming these pills, you can avoid unnecessary stress and tension about an unwanted pregnancy.

4. Even if the pills fail to prevent pregnancy, they will not cause any harm to the baby.

5. These pills won't affect your chances of getting pregnant in the future. Your fertility remains the same and returns with your next period.

6. Studies have shown that morning after pills effectively lower the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer.


1. They can cause certain side effects. Some common morning after pills side effects are nausea, vomiting, dizziness, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, irregular bleeding and breast tenderness.

2. Morning after pills can also cause some serious side effects such as liver disorders, gallbladder disease, high blood pressure and blood clots in the heart, intestines and lungs.

3. They can cause serious health complications in women suffering from diabetes, heart diseases and migraine.

4. They can also have adverse effects in women, who are over 35 years of age and have cardiovascular disorders, deep vein thrombosis, liver problems and breast cancer.

5. The use of morning after pill raises the risk of an ectopic pregnancy. In such a pregnancy, the embryo gets lodged in the fallopian tubes rather than the womb. If you are using morning after pills, the pregnancy can remain undetected. This is because the symptoms of ectopic pregnancy are similar to the side effects of the pills: nausea and abdominal pain. If remain undetected for a long time, it can prove to be fatal.

6. Other than these side effects, the body may have an allergic reaction to the drug, causing an outbreak of rash and breathing problems.

7. Apart from physical side effects to the body, the emergency contraceptive pills can also have a wider social impact. The easy over-the-counter access to the emergency contraceptive pill raises questions about its misuse. Many people are of the view that it may lead to an increase in promiscuity, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and increased sexual violence against women.

Though the use of morning after pill becomes essential to avoid pregnancy after an unprotected sex, its usage must be avoided on regular basis.

Source by Asaf Reich

The Purpose of Control Accounts

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The reasons for having control accounts are as follows:

1. Check on the accuracy

They provide a check on the accuracy of entries made in the personal accounts in the sales ledger and purchase ledger. It is very easy to make a mistake in posting entries, because there might be hundreds of entries to make. Figures might get transposed. Some entries may be omitted altogether, so that an invoice or a payment transaction does not appear in a personal account as it should. By comparing:

o The total balance on the debtors account with the total of individual balances on the personal accounts in the sales ledger.

o The total balance on the creditors account with the total of individual balances on the personal accounts in the purchase ledger.

It is possible to identify the fact that errors have been made.

2. Location of errors

It could also assist in the location of errors, where posting to the control accounts are made daily or weekly, or even monthly. If a clerk fails to record an invoice or a payment in a personal account, or makes a transaction error, it would be a formidable task to locate the error or errors at the end of a year, say, given the hundred or thousands of transactions during the year.

By using the control account, a comparison with the individual balances in the sales or purchase ledger can be made for every week or day of the month, and the error found much more quickly than if accounts did not exist.

3. For internal check

Where there is a separate of clerical bookkeeping duties, the control account provides an internal check. The person posting entries to the accounts will act as a check on a different person who job it to post entries to the sales and purchase ledger accounts.

4. More simply and quickly

To provide debtors and creditors balances more quickly for producing a trial balance or balance sheet. A single balance on a control account is obviously expected simpler and quickly than many individual balances in the sales or purchase ledger.

This means also that the number of accounts in the double entry bookkeeping system can be kept down to a manageable size, since the personal accounts are memorandum accounts only and the control accounts instead provide the accounts required for a double entry system.

Source by Randika Lalith Abeyinghe

The Pros and Cons Of Radiofrequency Treatment For Chronic Back Pain

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Radiofrequency neurotomy, also called radiofrequency ablation or lesioning, is a procedure that intentionally injures nerves to prevent pain signals from being sent to and processed by the brain. It is a minimally invasive surgical procedure reserved for those with chronic pain who have not found relief from more conservative treatment methods.

Radiofrequency treatments can be used on patients with pain from a degenerative disc, facet joint or sacroiliac (SI) joint. Guided by fluoroscopy, an electrode is inserted into the body and placed on the targeted nerve. Once positioned properly, the electrode is heated to create a lesion on the nerve. A more recent, advanced form of the procedure includes a cooling phase; This increases the area of ​​the electrode's impact and may be useful in certain locations of the body.

This treatment is not a permanent solution; over time, nerves heal and pain returns. It is important to remember that radiofrequency is a treatment that addresses the symptom of pain, not the initial cause thereof. Review the following pros and cons before deciding whether to receive this procedure.


For people who can not perform day-to-day activities or work due to pain, a procedure like radiofrequency neurotomy can be tremendously positive. If effective, the procedure may allow people to return to work and perform basic daily activities like walking without excessive pain.

Results from radiofrequency treatment can last up to a year or two, which may make it more appealing than steroid injections, another common treatment for back and SI joint pain.

Neurotomy is a less invasive procedure than other surgical methods of eliminating joint and disc pain, particularly fusion surgery. Fusion creates a rigid segment between vertebrae or the pelvic bone and sacrum to inhibit painful motion from instability. The procedure comes with a high price tag and a host of risks, including accelerated degeneration of facet joints and spinal discs near the fused joint. Radiofrequency lesioning may provide sufficient pain relief to avoid more invasive surgery.

Research indicates that this procedure is helpful to some degree for around 70% of those who receive it and that it may decrease reliance on expensive and dangerous pain medications. See http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/studies-published-in-pain-medicine-demonstrate-effectiveness-of-minimally-invasive-cooled-radiofrequency-treatment-for-low-back-pain-194185701 .html for a collection of research supporting the use of cooled radiofrequency for discogenic and SI joint pain.


Radiofrequency lesioning makes pain worse before making it better. The initial week following the procedure can be difficult due to local soreness and swelling. Some patients who have received the treatment report that it can take a month or two to feel any positive effects.

Some patients receiving the treatment never experience relief. Some may even experience more pain if the procedure was done incorrectly and the targeted nerve was incompletely damaged; this would cause it to increase its pain signal output. See http://www.spine-health.com/forum/treatment/pain-management/rf-neurotomy-ablation-has-worked-you-how-long-did-it-take-notice-res to read reviews of the procedure from a number of people who have received it.

It must be remembered that this treatment is not a cure; it just masks the pain. Whatever your pain is caused by a degenerated disc, facet joint or SI joint, it is important to continue efforts to resolve the undering issue. Research alternative medicine to find treatment options you may not be aware of. Take advantage of your pain-free or reduced pain time post-radiofrequency treatment to follow through on exercise therapy, strengthening your core muscles that support joints and spinal discs.

Radiofrequency neurotomy may be a suitable treatment for you if pain is interfering with your quality of life. The focus of any chronic pain treatment plan, however, should be to address the cause of pain and not just mask the symptom.

Source by Amee LaTour

Music Theory – How To Understand It

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Most musicians learn "by ear" which basically means that they are hopefully good observers and imitators, remembering where that note was and so on! Hey, a good memory helps. Many great musicians have learned this way; the great Duke Ellington stated a basic truth about music: "If it sounds good it IS good." Rumor has it that many of the great Jazz and blues musicians only had a rudimentary knowledge of music theory despite what they performed was excellent music. Many could not read music but most had the "musical instincts" or a good "ear".

The Gypsies of Europe are often spoken of as "natural musicians" as opposed to those who have formal musical training in music theory. Some would argue in a negative way that the proclivity to musicianship is only due to the inordinate amount of time they have to practice, developing good observation skills and memory.

I personally learned to play the guitar the Spanish way which involves the use of solfeggio or the Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, etc. etc. We can thank the Italians for inventing this method which can give a sound to the eight-note musical scale used in the Western world. This Major scale is a short version of the complete musical scale or Chromatic scale of the western world.

Pythagoras the Greek, some 2500 years ago discovered the "octave" distance or interval. He discovered a basic fact of sound or vibrations. We could simplify it this way .. As the speed of a vibration increases the sound becomes higher or the pitch increases. As the speed of a vibration decreases, the sound becomes lower. Scientifically, we can use the symbols vps., Vibrations per second.

Therefore, any sound vibration remaining constant is called a note. Now here is the important part: when we double the vibrations (vps), say 20 to 40, or 50 to 100, or 300 to 600 vps, we call these distances with the same term an octave. The sound of the distance between these vibrations are obviously going from lower to higher, they are overtheless an octave. Singing solfege the note "do" will sound similar but higher as as you go up the scale and reach the next "do"; the vibrations will be doubled in the second "do."

Pythagoras the Greek divided this distance into twelve equal parts, today we call this the longer scale or the chromatic scale. The word comes from the ancient Greek word for color or chromos and refers to the potential for flavor, variety or color that a song or melody may have. Although musicians initially know more about the shortened major scale, they are in fact always using the chromatic scale, especially when they are using sharp or flat notes. The description in solfeggio is this: Do, di re ri mi fa fi sol si la li ti do.

Although there are other ways of learning music, the singing of these musical sounds with a piano or say a guitar will help the musician train his "ear". Remember this, the distance from any note to another is an interval but the most important interval is the octave.

The more you know about music theory, the better you will be able to play. There are many excellent books with CDs or DVDs available at your local library or book store that can help you with this. The time that you invest in learning music theory will be time well spent as you hear your getting better.

May good music live on !!

Source by Albert Sotelo

Noise Cancelling Headphones – Stay Enclosed by Music Only

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When it comes to headphones the range and choice available can be quite daunting. Firstly there is the earpiece design: On Ear headphones, Over Ear headphones or In Ear headphones. Then there are the various types of technology features to choose from such as wireless headphones using either RF (Radio Frequency) or Bluetooth so send the sound from source to headphones. Another major technology is noise reducing or noise cancelling headphones which can be achieved in various ways. Just the act of using in ear headphones where the earpiece sits directly in the ear canal or over ear headphones which totally encases the ear will have the effect of reducing the external noise that the wearer can hear. This is often referred to as passive noise cancellation.

The alternative is so called active noise cancelling headphones. These use electronic circuitry to read the external noise and then produce an opposite noise wave that cancelling the background noise. This type of noise cancelling headphones can, according to some manufacturers, reduce background noise by up to 99% and therefore are really ideal in noisy environments like air, bus or train travel.

Active noise coughing headphones are also kinder to the ears because you do not have to crank up the volume to hear the music over and above the background noise and thus reduce the possibility of ear damage from too much volume

So once one has decided on the type of earpiece, the technology features that one wishes to have included the next major choices are around design, color and brand. The combinations of these three criteria are infinite.

There are a number of brands which are closely associated with headphones such as the traditional consumer electronics manufacturers like Sony, JVC and Panasonic. Then there are the new hip brands associated with the youth music markets such as Dr Dre, SMS Street headphones and SOUL by Ludacris headphones. Lastly there are a number of brands who are renowned within the wider music and recording market for their technological brilliance and are often the choice of professional musicians. Amongst these Beyerdynamic, Sennheiser and and Shure earphones and headphones are the most famous.

Shure earphones and Shure headphones are produced by an American company founded in 1925 which is renamed in the music industry for its award-winning Sound Isolating Earphones, mobile phone stereo headsets to Professional Studio and DJ headphones. All built on professional audio roots, Shure's consumer audio products are designed to take listening experiences of MP3 players, mobiles phones and sound systems to a higher level.

Source by John P Marks

How Does Natural Male Enhancement Work

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Nitric oxide plays a critical role in regulating your blood pressure, forbidding blood clots, combined with the dilating of blood vessels. Nitric oxide is employed extensively in a multitude of medical treatments. The all the rage product Viagra controls penile hardness by regulating your nitric oxide.

Initially, it was discovered that nitric oxide may induces severeness when injected in the central nervous system of rats. Not unexpectedly, human testing quickly advanced.

An effortless approach to find out how the process runs is to employ the model of a balloon. A balloon is limp if there is no air in it. However when you start to inflate the balloon incorporating a small amount of air, it gets elongated as well as rigid.

Men own a similar mechanism. However, rather than using pressurized air to be rigid, we apply pressurized blood. Blood is pressurized by using nitric oxide.

Simplistically, what occurs is that the brain becomes stimulated and sends out a signal for arousal. Nerve cells amid the corpora cavernosa debate bringing about nitric oxide. The nitric oxide in turn causes the production of a chemical that signals arteries to dilate. This dilation results with the flow of blood. The arteries expand and widen, which permits a greater amount of blood to flow. That flowing blood is like blowing air in the balloon. You ever begin to grow. In concert veins restrict to preclude blood from flowing out. It is consequently uncomplicated physics – more blood in and reduced out results in male enhancement – getting bigger as well as a hard member. This is a regular method in the human body. A multitude of valves open and close. When the artillery open up then there's an increased flow of blood.

Subsequently, to generate a male enhancement product you desire to craft something that increments flow of blood. There are different ways in order to do this.

You could increase the amount of nitric oxide that is created. You could increase the current amount of chemicals that are created as a result of having more nitric oxide. Or you can attack an enzyme that lowers the total quantity of that chemical – a back door path of gaining the chemical.

Unfortunately, nitric oxide is certainly not as easily obtained as air. Which is the reason diverse products may be available that either increase your nitric oxide or increase selected chemicals as if you had extra nitric oxide. The ultimate outcome may be increased stamina, a larger libido, and a larger size and overall volume. Thus, natural male enhancement.

Source by Maxx Johnson

Alcohol and Erectile Problems – How to Get Instant Erections

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If you love drinking alcohol, I have some bad news for you.

Alcohol and erectile problems go hand in hand. Alcohol can make you impotent and seriously ruin your relationship. In fact, a lot of young guys experience erectile dysfunction due to indulgence in drinking.

The Science

Blood flow to the penis, testosterone levels in your body and the state of your mental well being are some of the most important factors that play a vital role in making you achieve a harder and stiffer erection.

Sexual stimulation results in a complex reaction in your central nervous systems that passes impulses to the blood vessels to increase blood flow to the penis. Your heart begins pumping blood faster so that more blood is allowed into the penile region.

Now, alcohol can disrupt this entire process. While it can help you get over your inhibitions, it can also suppress your central nervous system. This can kill the entire process and your body does not properly signal the blood vessels to supply enough blood to the penis. Not just this, alcohol abuse over time can also result in nerve damage in the penal. This is often irreversible and can make you impotent for life.

There are studies which reveal that this kind of nerve damage can leave you impotent even when you are sober!

But this is not all!

Alcohol also increases the level of estrogen or the female hormone in your body. What it means is that testosterone or the male hormone levels dip. A drop in testosterone not only lowers your libido but also results in impaired erectile function.

So every glass of alcohol that you drink gets you a notch closer to erectile problems and the situation worsens over time.

Another effect of alcohol consumption is that it can increase body fat. This is closely related to an increase in estrogen levels. Estrogen is associated with fat accumulation and water retention in your body. No wonder, men who drink alcohol often have larger bellies and male breasts. Development of male breasts is a condition that is called Gynaecomastia and can be really embarrassing.

Alcohol is also responsible for making you feel depressed. Depression, nervousness and anxiety are some of the most basic psychological reasons behind erectile dysfunction in men. Such factors can make men a complete failure in bed. What makes things worse is that dealing with impotence or erectile dysfunction is not easy for men. It seems to put them under extreme stress which kind of worsens the situation resulting in a spiral like effect.

How to Get Over Alcohol Impotence

First and foremost, it is important to quit drinking. Now, this is not easy but it is not impossible either. If your are determined to enjoy better sex and also improve your overall health, you need to take concrete steps towards this. In such a case, it is important to seek a therapist's consultation.

However, if you are not too much into drinking, you can easily do it yourself by focusing on your goals.

Beside giving up alcohol, it is also important to learn some stress management techniques so that you can get over factors such as depression, stress and anxiety.

Over and above, there are some herbal solutions that can offer great help.

Certain herbs have been used as aphrodisiacs for thousands of years and can boost sexual function in men. Erection oils can be the best form of such herbal remedies specifically in cases when men find it difficult to get erections after having a couple of drinks. These oils are topical applications that get absorbed straight into the bloodstream when rubbed on the penis, result in almost immediate erections by rushing blood to the penis.

Check out the Best Erection Oil that can make you perform like a Porn Star in bed!

Source by Tim Bryant

The Real Healthy Chocolate News

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It would appear that the dream of a chocolate that is truly potent with health enhancing properties, has finally been realized, and is set to arrive in the UK shortly. It has been scientifically tested and verified by a variety of highly qualified bodies, to be genuine in all its claims. The company behind this revolutionary product, have patented a system of cold extraction of the cocoa solids and fats (cocoa and cocoa butter) from the cacao bean (chocolate's main ingredient).

This ingenious breakthrough allows the naturally high content of antioxidants to remain intact through the entire manufacturing process. Antioxidants serve to protect the body's cells from damage and slow down the aging process. Scientific research suggest a proportional link between the amount of antioxidants present and the length of the body's natural life. The traditional method of chocolate making requires heat and heat is the main destroyer of naturally occurring nutrients in vegetation. The powerful punch of the unadulterated cacao is further enhanced by the addition of the acai berry.

Found in the South American rainforest, this super food also boasts ultra high antioxidant levels. Combined, this impressive partnership delivers a force of antioxidants that until now, has never been seen in any product of its kind. These unpreceded antioxidant levels have been certified by Brunswick labs after confirming the ORAC score (oxygen radical absorption capacity) of the final product. Often, ORAC scores for products, are given, based on measurements taken at the beginning of, or during the manufacturing process and not at the end, by which time, much of the antioxidant content can be lost. The chocolate is also said to be rich in epecatechins, Scientists believe epecatechins are the future force in combating four out of the five major diseases: stroke, heart failure, cancer and diabetes.

As if the prior was not enough, It seems they have not compromised on standard as far as the remaining ingredients are concerned. The turbo charged chocolate, does not contain any waxy fillers, as is often found in regular chocolate products, there are no refined sugars present, no negative fats, no caffeine, it's non dairy and gluten free.

And the claims go on: It's low in cholesterol, low glycemic, diabetic friendly, suitable for vegetarians and vegans and is also Kosher certified, and probably most importantly to chocolate lovers, is heralded as tasting absolutely delicious.

This seemingly formidable, super chocolate has been haled 'Impressive' by a commissioned medical advisory board and further validated by The Clinical University of Utah.

The Nevada based, family owned, company is just 3 years old, but in that time they have used business and marketing expertise to develop a solid, debt-free business and a network marketing system that saw company growth of 300% in 2007. The company saw sales of 55 million last year and expect to reach 100 million this year. Their president says their target is to reach a billion in the not to distant future. This trend-setting product looks to have great marketability and its proven track record suggests it is set to take the UK market by storm.

The fact that it will not be available in any shops, and will be sold exclusively through networks, presents a good marketing opportunity for home business seekers and seasoned marketers alike. The timing is strangely fortunate, as chocolate is known to sit comfortably in the exclusive group of "Recession Proof" industries; in fact chocolate sales have been shown to be up in such times. Note; the company's sales were up by 40% in 2008.

With more innovative healthy-chocolate product lines set for future release, it is believed that individuals / marketers involving themselves with the product at this early stage, could stand to reap substantive rewards.

It looks like this company is single-handedly putting healthy chocolate well and really on the map.

Source by Lloyd Gordon

The American Alcohol Epidemic

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America has one of the highest drinking ages in the world at twenty-one. Our northern neighbors, Canada, draw the line at nineteen. On our southern border, Mexico draws the line at eighteen. The majority of European countries also draw the legal drinking line at eighteen. Does this mean Americans are too strict?

The American drinking age is set at twenty-one because alcohol can seriously stunt a teen's growth and development. Through research it has been found that at the age of twenty-one alcohol will no longer inhibit growth and development for the majority of bodies. This is why America holds the bar high.

A ramification of the high drinking age has caused a problem among youth. This is the problem of under-aged drinking. Because there is a "can not have" on alcohol, many American teens end up drinking too much to the point of passing out when they do drink. Binge drinking is common among children and young adults.

Decreasing the drinking age is not the answer to America's under-aged drinking problem. According to the Partnership at Drug Free.Org: Dramatic Differences Found in American and European Teenage Substance Use, European countries have alcohol abuse problems as well because their drinking age is lower than America's. Europe has more teens drinking alcohol in school than America does.

Binge Drinking

Over fifty percent of adults eighteen and over are current drinkers, meaning they have had at least twelve drinks in the past year. Over twelve percent of adults age eighteen and over are infrequent drinkers, meaning they had between one and eleven drinks in the past year. This means that the majority of Americans eighty and over are alcohol drinkers, according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Alcohol Use for the US

Binge drinking is when a person drinks so much alcohol that their body goes into shock and gets sick, vomiting uncontrollably, or blacks out. All of these symptoms are very dangerous as they could cause the body to shut down completely and die. Many binge drinkers visit the emergency room every year to get their stomachs pumped because they were binge drinking.

The number of alcohol-induced deaths in America, excluding alcohol-related deaths which included accidents and homicides, is 25,692. Many American towns have an entire population smaller than this number.

Liver Poisoning

Alcohol is damaging to the liver. The liver is the part of the body which filters harmful chemicals from the blood, and alcohol is definitely a harmful chemical. The more a person drinks, the less able the liver is to perform this function. Alcoholics who do not die from binge drinking or accidents tend to die in their mid-forties and fifties from alcohol poisoning.

Modern medicine has made it possible for most people to live to be a hundred or older. Alcohol poisoning is literally cutting a person's life span in half. A few drinks here and there may seem like a good idea, but consider this fact: preventable death is always one of the hardest subjects to change since it is cured by people making better choices.

Raising awareness on the subject of alcohol abuse is a positive way to reverse the American alcohol epidemic which is plaguing this country. Nobody needs to die from alcohol poisoning or liver damage. There is so much to live for in this world – do not let alcohol take it away.

Source by Daniel M Manson